JAZZ America?s Music Roots West African: improvisation, complex rhythms and syncopation, percussion, drumming, call and response European: Western music tradition - melody, harmony, instrumentation, band music, piano music American: work songs, spirituals, blues, folk tunes, popular music, dances, marching band music (and instruments), ragtime African-American Origins - turn of 20th-century Originally played in saloons and brothels Stylistic Periods New Orleans-style Dixieland (Genesis - 1890s to 1920s) Chicago-style (1920s) Swing/Big Band (1930s and ?40s) Bebop - origins of latin jazz (early-1940s to mid-?50s) Cool (1950s) Hardbop (mid-1950s to ?60s) Avant-garde and Free Jazz (1960s and ?70s) Fusion: Jazz-Rock (late-1960s to ?90s) Geographic Centers New Orleans (1890s to 1920s) Chicago (1920s) Kansas City (1920s to 1930s) New York (late-1920s on) Other American and International Urban Centers New York City Jazz Venues Birdland Village Vanguard Blue Note Iridium Dizzy?s Coca-Cola Small?s Smoke Jazz Standard Fat Cat Sweet Rhythm Important Figures in the Evolution of Jazz Louis Armstrong (1901-1971) Duke Ellington (1899-1974) Count Basie (1904-1984) Charlie Parker (1920-1955) Miles Davis (1926-1991) John Coltrane (1926-1967) Defining Characteristics Improvisation: individual vs. the collective Swing Syncopation Constant Tempo, ?groove? Prominence of Percussion Unique Tone Colors and Performance Techniques Elements of Jazz Ride cymbal Walking bass Piano comping Swing eighth-note pattern Special instrumental techniques/colors: drop-off, scoop, smear, doit Blue notes Stride piano style Call and Response Time: stop-, double-, half- Instruments Front Line: Trumpet, Saxophone, Trombone Rhythm Section: Guitar, Piano, Bass, Drums Common Jazz Forms 12-bar Blues: three 4-bar phrases 4/4 I / I / I / I / IV / IV / I / I / V / IV / I / I // Song Form: 32 bars divided into four 8-bar sections A-A-B-A Horace Silver: Seņor Blues (1955) Classic jazz quintet instrumentation Hard Bop style 12-bar Blues form Blues-inflected solos Complex rhythm (Afro-latin) Frequent use of double-time feel Extreme dynamics Intro/Vamp: bass and piano, then drums enter 1st Chorus: melody - trumpet and tenor sax 2nd Chorus: related melody (more intense, higher register) 3rd and 4th Choruses: trumpet solo - improv 5th and 6th Choruses: sax solo - improv 7th Chorus: ensemble passage, ?shout? 8-11: piano solo - improv 12-13: melody returns Ending: new melody in horns over vamp, closing bass line Louis Armstrong (1901-1971) Born in New Orleans Known as ?Pops,? ?Dippermouth,? ?Satchmo? Often call the ?father of jazz? Trumpet virtuoso: beautiful, rich sound, great range, vocal quality Jazz? first great soloist - transforms what had been a collective ensemble music into a soloist?s art form Great rhythmic feel: relaxed, ?swinging,? supple Popularized ?scat? singing - vocalized trumpet lines Appeared in about 50 movies On February 15, 1964, Hello, Dolly displaced The Beatles at #1 on the pop charts West End Blues (1928) ?Hot Fives? and ?Hot Sevens? most important early jazz recordings model for swing era that followed 1920s Chicago jazz scene Introductory trumpet solo: famous, virtuosity, drama Introduction: trumpet solo, dramatic, virtuosic, sustained high note - descent, band chord First chorus: 12-bar blues, melody played by trumpet in firm, deliberate manner, with band accompaniment Second chorus: trombone solo - high, smears Third chorus: Duet between clarinet and Armstrong?s vocal - ?scat? singing Fourth chorus: piano improv by Earl ?Fatha? Hines, piano virtuoso, flowery ?trumpet-style? Fifth chorus: trumpet solo - long, drawn-out bluesy figure concludes piece The Swing Era Developed in 1920s Flourished 1935-1945 Dancing to the Big Bands Typical Instrumentation - 15 players, 3 sections: saxophones, brass (trumpets and trombones), and rhythm (piano, guitar, bass, and drums) Larger group, less improvisation, more composed/ arrangements Melodies often performed by whole sections Short, repeated phrases called ?riffs? Saxophone becomes important solo instrument Percussionist plays more prominent role Big Band Bonanza Hundreds of name bands: Count Basie, Glenn Miller, Tommy Dorsey, Benny Goodman (?The King of Swing?), Artie Shaw, Fletcher Henderson, Cab Calloway, and many more Black and White Featured Headliners, both instrumentalists and singers: Billie Holliday, Ella Fitzgerald, Frank Sinatra Duke Ellington (1899-1974) Born Edward Kennedy Ellington in Washington, D. C. Moved to New York City in 1923 Founded the Duke Ellington Orchestra 1927-1931 Cotton Club, Harlem introduces what comes to be known as ?jungle music? to white audiences Leads one of the foremost big bands in the swing era Very successful, tours internationally, becomes major celebrity Most important jazz composer ever Pianist, bandleader, arranger Extremely prolific, creative, innovative created over 2,000 works Led the most stable band for 50 years Arranging ability: colorful orchestration using unusual combinations of instruments (tone colors) featured unique characteristics of instruments and individual players (Ben Webster, Johnny Hodges) Billy Strayhorn - ?alter-ego,? arranging partner Cottontail (1940) Tour de force feature for tenor saxophonist Ben Webster A-A-B-A form, based on George Gershwin?s I Got Rhythm For classic big band: 5 saxes, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, piano, guitar, bass, and drums Prelude to a Kiss (1957) Feature for longtime Ellington alumnus alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges with his lilting sound and unique style bent notes and rhythm bending Arranged by Billy Strayhorn A-A-B-A form Romantic ballad solo Billie Holliday ?Lady Day? (1915-1959) Most influential jazz singer after Louis Armstrong Original, sincere, melancholy sound Bluesy sound, smoky timbre, relaxed phrasing and rhythmic feel, strongly influenced by jazz instrumentalists Sang with many prominent swing era musicians, particularly in small group settings Her autobiography: Lady Sings the Blues Ella Fitzgerald (1918-1996) Most outstanding non-operatic singer of the 20th century Incredible technique and intonation Perfect time and very swinging style Effortless sound, youthful quality Greatest scat singer ever Count Basie (1904-1984) Born William Basie in Red Bank, New Jersey (home of the Count Basie Theater) Pianist, bandleader, composer, arranger economical musical style Led the Count Basie Orchestra (1937-1984), the ?swingingest? band of all time legendary rhythm section Kansas City style: lighter, more relaxed, bouncy swing feel steeped in the blues frequent use of ?riffs? One O?clock Jump 12-bar blues Piano intro Band enters: background riffs beneath solos (tenor sax, trombone, alto sax, trumpet) Piano solo Band riffs, then plays melody, riffs out Bebop Developed in the early 1940s Virtuosic, complex, edgy style, usually for small groups: quintet Meant for serious listening, not dancing Sophisticated harmonies Fast tempos, driving rhythms Prominence of ride cymbal Typical Plan Begin and end with statement of the main tune played by horns in unison Solo improvisations based less on melody, more on harmonic structure (often based on popular tunes or the blues) Notable Bebop Musicians Trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie (1917-1993) Pianist Thelonious Monk (1917-1982) Alto saxophonist Charlie ?Bird? Parker (1920-1955) Charlie Parker (1920-1955) Alto saxophonist from Kansas City Known as ?Yardbird? or later as ?Bird? Jazz?s second great soloist after Louis Armstrong Brilliant sound, endless invention Developed ?Bebop? along with Dizzy Gillespie in the 1940s Night in Tunisia (1946) Written by Dizzy Gillespie Bebop A-A-B-A Afro-Cuban rhythm Bass Ostinato Recurring Interludes with solo breaks Double-timing on solos Miles Davis (1926-1991) Trumpet player from St. Louis, Missouri Played in Charlie Parker?s quintet Dark, brooding sound Lean style - few notes, lots of space Kind of Blue (1959), bestselling jazz album of all time Always cutting edge - expanded Jazz?s horizons: modal, orchestral, jazz-rock fusion ?Round Midnight (1956) Composed by Thelonious Monk Landmark Hard Bop album Ballad, fully-arranged with intro, interlude, and coda Muted trumpet John Coltrane?s tenor saxophone solo The Girl from Ipanema (1964) Bossa Nova, meaning ?new thing? - movement 1958-1963, a fusion of jazz and samba First bossa nova single to achieve international popularity Featured musicians: American tenor saxophonist Stan Getz Two of the creators of Bossa Nova - Brazilian composer/pianist Antonio Carlos Jobim Brazilian guitarist/singer Joao Gilberto along with his wife, singer Astrud Gilberto
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