Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
She was one of the nations top advertising copywriters. Wrote “Sex and the Single Girl”- Reinvented Cosmopolitan by marketing it to women ages 18-34 with an interest in love, sex, fashion, and their careers. Originally was marketed to the modern family and targeted married women.
When did magazines become popular in the U.S?
What magazine chronicled the U.S. Civil War?
Harpers New Monthly Magazine
Sarah Josepha Hale is someone we talked about in class. What magazine did she edit for more than 40 years and how successful was it?
She started the first magazine directed exclusively to a female audience, the Ladies’ Magazine, covered general-interest, women’s education, work, and property rights. Was Very successful: at the time, had biggest distribution for a US magazine, and played a central role in educating working and middle-class women.
After the Civil War, magazines benefitted from the industrial revolution’s advances in printing, and from what federal legislation?
Postal Act of 1879- gave magazines lower postage rates and put them on equal footing with newspapers delivered by mail, reducing distribution costs.
What is “muckraking” and which magazines were the leading muckrakers?
Muckraking: Real, serious, in-depth reporting. Colliers, Ladies Home Journal, McClures, Cosmopolitan- Treason of the Senate
Who is Ida Tarbell? What problem did she expose? How is she like Bethany McLean?
She wrote for McClure’s magazine and wrote “ The History of the Standard Oil Company”, which uncovered the Rockefeller Oil Monopoly. They both uncovered influential events as Bethany McLean uncovered the Enron scandal.
The general interest magazines identified by the text: Saturday Evening Post, Reader’s Digest, Time, and Life, each had separate appeals to the American public. What was the appeal of each? How did they differ?
Saturday Evening Post included pop fiction and romanticized American virtues, through works and pictures. First to reach 2 million in circulation
Readers Digest- Most widely circulated magazine. Printed condensed versions of articles from other magazines.
Time- Interpreted journalism; Took over photojournalism’s role in news reporting
Life- Oversized pictorial weekly; Had a Pass- along readership
How did Life contribute to the evolution of photojournalism? BTW, here is the photograph we talked about in class: http://davisbaby.files.wordpress.com/2007/02/lifecover.jpg
They rivaled popular radio and combined the public’s fascination with images with the popularity of advertising and fashion photography.
How has Photoshop hurt photojournalism?
There is a loss of authenticity of images. Using Photoshop, a person can manipulate images to make them seem more happy, menacing; point being, the images’ credibility are lost due to their easy manipulation.
What drove general interest magazines out of business? When?
Specialized magazines drove them out of business, When?
How did Hugh Hefner begin the era of the “specialized” magazine?
He started Playboy, which was the first to undermine the conventional values of pre-WWII America and emphasize previously taboo subject matter.
Which of these magazines share a demographic appeal?
Which share a psychographic appeal?
Sport Rider, ESPN, Quilting, Woodsmith
What is a trade magazine? What examples did we discuss in class?
Trade Magazine- Subscribe to or buy them, advertising dependent 70-90% is paid for by advert. (ESPN, Harley, Sports Illustrated) i.e. anything you can get at a newsstand or subscribe to.
What is a membership magazine? What examples did we discuss in class?
Membership Magazine- must join organization to get it, Smithsonian Magazine, National Geographic
What is a sponsored magazine? What examples did we discuss in class?
Sponsored Magazine- published by interest group or organization, can’t subscribe to, John Deere Magazine (if you buy something from them, they send it to you)
Are Latino/Latina magazines more or less successful than Spanish language newspapers? Why?
More successful, Magazines have been rapidly developing and have had a wide circulation among the 44 million new influx, while newspapers have been replaced by TV networks and Spanish radio, and now only account for 4.5 percent of the newsroom.
What are the most successful webzines? Do they make money?
Salon, Slate, and Politico- they do make money and attract a ton of monthly visitors each; stated in order of success
What was the advertising found in Pompeii called?
Graffiti painted on the walls.
Why did advertising disappear after the fall of the Roman Empire?
It is impossible to have advertising in a barter economy.
When did it re-emerge and why?
The Industrial Revolution, it was the development of “The Brand”
What is “disposable income” and why is it necessary to advertising?
Money not needed to spend on necessities, if people don’t have disposable income, they don’t have money to buy extra things that are being advertised.
What is a “platform?” (see intro) How big is Google? Where does its money come from? Google has the coolest company headquarters in the world, thanks to you!
Google is huge, and its money comes from advertising?
What is “product placement” and where do you see it?
Strategically putting products in movies, tv shows, comic books and video games so the product appears as part of the story’s set environment. See it in Tv shows, movies, comic books and video games
Yes, there was advertising before the U.S. Civil War, but what happened in the post-war boom that made advertising an important component of commercial success?
In addition to the brand names noted in your textbook, and Uneeda Biscuit (the first product of what is now Nabisco), what other trademarks did we discuss that were first used in the 19th century and are still being used today?
Pillsbury, Kleenex, Lysterine
Trademarks can include a logo, a color scheme, a slogan or a jingle. Can you define each of these and think of examples of each we discussed in class?
Logo-symbol or picture associated with a certain product: Pillsbury Doughboy
Color Scheme- Certain set of colors organized in a pattern:
Jingle: Song associated with a product: Nothin says lovin like something from the oven
What’s the best-known jingle in the world? Take a look:
Oscar Mayer Weiner
We talked about two kinds of trademarks: an “inherently distinctive mark” and a mark with “secondary meaning.” What are the differences between the two types of trademarks and why is an “inherently distinctive” mark a better, stronger trademark?
Inherently Distinctive marks are trademarks for that product so noone can copy it in any way. It is better because it is universal whereas secondary ones are only for a certain kind of business so another company who sells something different can use the same name, making it not as strong as inherently distinctive marks.
What is the Ad Council, and what campaigns has it created?
The ad council is an organization that created pro bono public service announcements on a wide range of topics. It has created the Smokey the Bear forest fire prevention campaign. The United negro college fund “A mind is a terrible thing to waste”, and the Department of Transportation “crash dummy” campaign for seat belt use.
How has the visual design of advertising changed with the growth of the “second” and “third” screens (computers and cell phones)?
They have become more 3-dimensional, more simple (so they can be viewed on cell phones), and more international
What kinds of “appeals” did we discuss in class and what kinds of products use each appeal? Remember the discussion of automobile models and what appeal is used by Volvo, Mercedes, sports cars, the Prius, etc?
Sex Appeal-Victoria Secret
Love-Comfort Appeal-Pillsbury Doughboy
Fear Appeal-Home Security Systems
What are the duties of the creative and the executive sides of advertising operations?
Creative- outlines rough sketches for print and online ads and then develops the words and graphics, generates ideas for radio, makes storyboard for tv, develops: websites, interactive tools, flash games, downloads, and viral marketing for digital. Pretty much anything creative that doesn’t deal directly with the client
Executive- Deals directly with the client, reaches out to select areas, figures out where advertising money will be most effective, and analyzes potential customers
How have tobacco companies reacted to controls on cigarette and tobacco advertising in the U.S?
By targeting certain groups of people like teens, like making Joe Camel look more hip and cool. Also putting ads on billboards and sports stadiums because advertising tobacco on tv became illegal in 1971
What is “puffery?” Is it illegal?
Puffery is ads featuring hyperbole or exaggeration, no it is not illegal, but when an ad says “preferred by 4 out of 5 doctors” the FTC (Federal Trade Commission) requires scientific evidence to back up the claims
In the last ten years, the number of book titles in print has grown by what percentage?
What were the reasons we cited in class for our ongoing love of books?
Takes you away from everyday life, increases knowledge, etc.
It’s good that parents read to children, but what is the ONE THING that children need to observe in order to become readers?
They need to see the parents reading
History: know who wrote on papyrus and what it is. Know who wrote on parchment and what is it. What is codex binding and how and when did it start replacing scrolls as book material?
Papyrus: The Egyptians made from plant reeds from the Nile River
Parchment: The Europeans, made from treated animal skin; stronger smoother, more durable, and less expensive
Codex: first pre-modern book, made of sheets of parchment and sewn together along the edge and then bound together with this pieces of wood and covered with leather. Started replacing scrolls in the 4th century and writing could be on both sides of the pages instead of just one side like in scrolls.
What is an illuminated manuscript (you’d better not miss this one; it’s the second time you’ve seen and heard the concept!)?
Illuminated Manuscript- Decorative, colorful designs on each page and made for churches and wealthy clients. Covered with leather and precious gems
What is moveable metal type and who invented it and when?
The Chinese invented it in the year 1000. Individual characters made from reusable pieces of wood or metal, rather than hand-carved pages. Sped up time to create block pages.
When did paperback books become popular? When did they sell for a dime?
Paperbacks became popular in the 1830’s, and Erastus and Irwin Beadle sold them for a dime starting in 1860.
What kinds of books are included in the term “trade book?” How much of the book publishing market is “trade books?”
Trade Books are any type of book of any genre sold to consumers in a bookstore or newsstand and sold for pleasure or self help. I.E. Romance novels, action novels, suspense, etc. $8.5 Billion out of a total of $25 Billion. ( 35%)
Why are comic books considered part of the book industry and not the magazine industry?
They have a recurring plot, they have genres, they have original material.
How profitable are textbooks?
They are not enormously profitable; the only ones that succeed are the textbooks that get chosen for ‘frontier’ classes-300+ people (intro. Classes). However, even of the many frontier books out there, only one gets chosen per class. The rest get pushed along, therefore most are not extremely profitable. ELHI Market.
Why are most textbooks aimed at children in California, Pennsylvania and New York?
Because the governments for those states determine which textbooks the students will use so all the students use the same one.
What is a “instant book?” Google “Shawn Johnson book” and you’ll see.
A topical book published quickly after a major event occurs
How did “Maus” change the comic book world? (case study)
It was called Maus: A Survivors Tale, by Art Spiegelman, and was the first comic book to win a Pulitzer Prize, and told of his complex relationship with his father, a Holocaust survivor
What did the class dislike about e-books?
You cant return them, not everyone has computers, not easily used on-the-go, recharge battery, etc.
What was the first national bestseller? (Harriet Beecher Stowe)
The abolitionist novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Sold 15 thousand copies in 15 days
What are the Google Book Project and the Open Alliance Project and why are they in conflict?
Google Project- Partnered with NY Public Library and several other university research libraries to scan millions of books and make them available online. They are being sued by publishing companies because they say you need permission to digitize copyrighted books, but Google argues that they only show a limited amount of info for copyrighted books so its legal under “fair use” rules.
Open Alliance Project- Works with Boston Public Library, several New England libraries, and Yahoo to digitize millions of books with expired copyrights and make them available on the internet.
In conflict because they are competing against one another and OAP doesn’t like Google restricting its scanned book content from use by other commercial search services.
What is censorship? What organization challenges attempts to ban books?
Censorship-Filtering out the things that some believe to be dangerous to society. The American Library Association (ALA) challenges attempts to ban books
What are the books mostly likely to be challenged by library patrons or politicians?
Politicians: some versions of the Bible, Das Kapital, Autobiography of Malcolm X, The Satanic Verses. Patrons: a) mentioned in text-I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings, Forever, and Captain Underpants. B) top 3 on table: Harry Potter, Chocolate War, Alice series.
What company is the largest book publisher in the world, and how much of the U.S. book market does it control? Why should that worry you?
The largest publisher is Germany’s Bertelsmann. Controls 1/3 of the US book market. It should worry you because it is kind of like a monopoly causing independents to struggle as the large companies dominate the industry
What are RPM laws? Does the EU support them or oppose them? Why? (Books: Cultural Status Defines Market)
RPM Laws- Retail Price Management Laws, in which publishers require retailers to sell books at the price fixed by the publisher or importer. About half of the countries in the EU have RPM laws but not all support them because some argue that the prices should be able to float freely in a competitive market
What are “subsidiary rights?”
Subsidiary Rights- Selling the rights to a book for use in other media, such as a mass market paperback or the basis for a screenplay. Handled by Acquisition editors
What are “royalties?”
The amount paid to the authors for the book they write.
How do royalties differ from advances?
Royalties are the total amount paid to the author; advances are amounts paid earlier to the author than royalties, but that are subtracted from their total royalty. It’s like a cash advance and credit limit.
How much of the book market is controlled by online retailers like Amazon?
They control between 21 and 30 percent of consumer book sales
How have superstores, such as Borders and Barnes and Noble, affected independent bookstores?
They cut independent bookstores’ business severely, which dropped from a 31 percent market share in 1991 to about 10 percent in 2007.
What are the differences between public relations and advertising?
Advertisers try to sell a product, Public Relations try to promote a person by their image or some other aspect
Why is public relations called a “management function” of a corporation?
Because they are part of the management of the company as they manage the product/persons image or another aspect of them
How did Levi Strauss improve the public relations profile of blue jeans? (see
The Denim Council had a PR team that improved the broken image of denim by changing the parents view of denim and having sportswear designers make new designs for mens and womens work and utility clothes made of denim
P.T. Barnum and Buffalo Bill Cody were “showmen” rather than press agents or public relations professionals. Were they successful? How?
Yes they were very successful because they used several antics to promote what they wanted to. They were also the first to use publicity-a type of PR that uses various media messages to spread information about a person, corporation, issue, or policy. Barnum- promoted his circus, clients, and museum. Cody- promoted his traveling show (Buffalo Bills Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World)
Whom did Ivy Ledbetter Lee represent and why? Why was Standard Oil held in such low public regard?
What did Andrew Carnegie, head of U.S. Steel, do to make himself more likeable?
Carnegie financed libraries
Who was Edward Bernays and what did he write that is still read today? What was Bernays’ most famous public relations coup?
He was the first to apply psychology and sociology to Public Relations. He wrote the field’s first textbook Crystallizing Public Opinion, which is still read today. He was hired by the American Tobacco Company to make smoking more socially acceptable to women.
How did public relations research help the Liz Claiborne Foundation refocus its public relations message?
They were able to refocus their message from domestic violence to teen dating abuse, which was far more effective.
also called news releases, are announcements written in the style of news reports that give new info about an individual, company, or an organization and pitch a story idea to the news media
are 30-90 second visual press releases designed to mimic the style of a broadcast news report. Large tv stations rarely use VNR’s
also known as VNR’s for non-profits, they are 15-60 second audio or video reports that promote govt. programs, educational projects, volunteer agencies, or social reform
Special Events vs. Pseudo-event: what are the differences between the two? Which is RAGBRAI? (if you don’t know this term, Google it.) Which is Nathan’s Famous Fourth of July Hot Dog Eating Contest? What other events did we talk about?
Special- Raise the profile of corporate, organizational, or government clients. i.e. Nathans Hot Dog eating contest, Boston Marathon, RAGBRAI
Pseudo- Any circumstance created for the sole purpose of gaining coverage in the media. i.e. press conferences, TV/radio talk show appearances, or any other staged activity aimed at drawing media coverage or public attention. i.e. The convergence of 7-Eleven stores to Kwik-E Marts to promote the Simpsons Movie
How are consumer relations a part of public relations?
If you have good customer relations and treat your customers well, they will talk about you to others and give you free Public Relations just by word of mouth. On the contrary, if you are bad to your customers and treat them poorly, it could hurt your public image
What is lobbying? Is it part of public relations?
Attempting to influence lawmakers to support and vote for an organization or industry’s best interests.
How is the Gap working to improve its public relations?
It employs a team of over 90 people to inspect and improve working conditions in its 3000 factories all over the world and continues to issue progress reports. It also terminates factories when needed, as it did so to 70 in 2004 and 62 in 2005.
Compare the BP Gulf oil spill and Tylenol. What did one do to hurt its public image, and what did the other do to improve it?
Tylenol handled the situation very well because it pulled all the bottles off the shelf that were contaminated and didn’t release them back until all the bottles were cleared and they also started sealing the bottle and boxing it, so you knew if it had been tampered with, and it also ended up helping their business. BP
How has Mars, Inc., earned its reputation for being “public relations aversive?”
They don’t offer tours of the factories, they don’t offer very many different kinds of merchandise, they didn’t tell anyone when the original founder died. They are very secretive
Why can’t other companies do the same time?
Because it would hurt their business and PR is a good way to boost your companies revenue.
Is the profession of public relations responsible for “spinning” the news?
IDK what this one is…I couldn’t find it in the notes on book…
The space left for news in the paper after the ads have been placed
The boston newsletter earned notarity as the first newspapers to publish by the authority of the brittish govern.
Some critics considered his hip movements lascivious
The cultivation effect(also know as mean world syndrome) argues that?
Heavy veiling of TV leads ppl to perceive the world in ways that consistent with TV portralys.
Ivy Lee told John D Rockefeller to hand out________ to children whenever he was in public, this positively transforms his image in the wake of the _________ disaster
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!