Demonstrates that the author must be originator of the expression. HofL found - because of intellectual contribution in taking shorthand, reporters were authors. Authorship be more about effort than literary skill
Cummins v Bond
Even if there is a small amount of creative choice, they are likely to be treated as the author. Spiritualist who produced automatic writing dictated to her beyond the grave. Not a mere conduit, took skill to translate so she was an author. Not enough to merely be present in the room.
Donoghue v Allied Newspapers
A person who photocopies, or traces a work will not be the author. It is skill and labour of the wrong kind and does not involve creative choices. Newspaper store about a jockey, he wrote them down and made a storey. Jockey only contributed vague ideas so was not the author/
Heptulla v Orient Longman
Indian independence movement - Bad English so worked with someone to write for him, he had real input of content. They were joint authors.
Robin Ray v Classic FM
Distinction between expression and fixation ' in my judgement what is required is something which approximates to penmanship. What is essential is a direct responsibility for what actually appears on the paper'
Compare Interlego and Hyperion records
Interlego unsuccesful, Hyperion was successful - shows the kind of change accepted