- The imagined realm to which one has access through the system of symbols constituting a religious tradition by dwelling in them (= attending from them subsidiarily). - It is the realm where one encounters or at least makes connection with what the tradition takes to be ultimate reality. - It is the "inside" which qualifies insiders as "insiders."
- The state of being at-one with what is ultimate reality. - "in harmony with" - the characterization of this state of at-onement will differ from one tradition to another.
- A way of formulating your account of a religious expression in a neutral way for the sake of understanding and reflection. - Ex. nonbracketed ? The Jews are the Chosen People of God? bracketed ? Jews believe themselves to be the Chosen people of God.
- The most important story of all the stories that are told - the one in relation to which all other stories, beliefs, symbols, and practices take on the meaning they characteristically have in that tradition. - Usually it is the story of the founding or establishment of the tradition.
- The family of the great religious traditions which emerged in the Far East, primarily the religions originating in India (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism) and China (Taoism, Confucianism), though it includes more than these.
- A capacity of your imagination to temporarily suspend your own perspective, and take on the perspective of the other, in order to apprehend and appreciate what can be seen and understood, and then to convey that to others in a neutral way that does it full justice.
- An act of imaginatively stepping into another person's perspective and considering how things look from over there - as if one were an insider while one is not one in fact. - Success in empathetic understanding would be a matter of having entered the perspective of the other person sufficiently as well to be able to re-present it credibly to others, - especially and above all in a way that is recognizable and credible to those persons who themselves occupy that perspective.
- Pertaining to the end of history - the end of time - It relates to those religious traditions that speak of a final end to human history - involves a judgment of people in relation to God and a final apportioning of justice in which each is expected to receive what he or she deserves. - There is no ideas in traditions which conceive cosmic time as cyclical rather than linear or non-repeating.
- A religious tradition which conceives itself to have originated in a revelation of "ultimate reality" in history through certain particular events, persons, and circumstances. - Its central story will tell of a decisive revelation of trans-historical, universal significance as having actually taken place in historical time. - In consequence, all efforts to convey the content of that alleged revelation will be shaped and colored by those historical particulars, and the tradition will continue to be preoccupied with those historical particulars as having been vested with eternal significance. - The Western family of religions are all historical religions in this sense.
Holiness of God
- The awesome, infinite standard of righteousness that God is understood both to set or establish and to be by his very being. - This is a characteristic of "ultimate reality" (stressed in Judaism) - In Western religions
- A striving to draw near to the object of investigation - where all relevant perspectives on it intersect - thus to comprehend it in its transcendence beyond any one perspective in a way that commands the recognition of those who dwell within them and know them well. - It is a matter of doing justice to the object itself
Belief that there exists one and only one God
Otherness of God
- The person-like character of God in virtue of which (a) God and his intentions would not be known did he not make himself and his intentions known in human history (b) God is capable of entering into relationship with people, thereby singling them out to accomplish his special purposes in history
Phenomenology of Religion
- It seeks to discover and make understandable to outsiders the understandings held by insiders. - It combines empathy and objectivity. - It brings to light common patterns and differences.
- A religious symbol that serves not only to represent ultimate reality, but also for participants to render it present and enable direct participation in it. - sometimes called sacramental symbols. - All presentational symbols are representational symbols, but the reverse is not true.
Problem of Meaning
- The respect in which events in human experience from time to time in a variety of different ways pose a threat to the ultimate meaningfulness of life and disclose a felt dis-relationship between the persons feeling that threat and what is taken to be ultimate reality - The question is, how to cope with the threat and attain to an affirmation of the meaning and worth of life despite it. - There are six ways of being religious, which are in ways of coping with the threat and attaining to an affirmation of the meaning and worth of life despite it.
- A human spokesperson for God in Western religions - chosen and enabled by God to declare and make known his revelation to human beings, which revelation typically involves some divine moral expectation that needs to be heeded to get in right relationship with God.
Public Education of Religious Studies
- Teaching about religion: teaching about what people believe to be true and important - not an attempt to instruct religiously
- A means of getting in touch with and of attaining at-onement with "ultimate reality." - a system of symbols (e.g., words and gestures, stories and practices, objects and places) that functions religiously, namely, an ongoing system of symbols that participants use to draw near to, and come into right or appropriate relationship with, what they deem to be ultimate reality.
- Anything which refers to and represents something pertaining to "ultimate reality." - Some such symbols under certain circumstances may also serve as presentational symbols, in which case they are experienced as conveying the very presence of what they are understood to represent.
- A disclosure or communication by the "ultimate reality" to human beings of matters that would not otherwise be known, or not known as clearly and decisively. - in Western religions.
Scandal of Particularity
- A feature of historical religions where the universal and eternal message of divine revelation is accessible only in and through the particular historical and culturally specific circumstances in which it is held to have originally been given. - In consequence, there results a perpetual controversy over sorting out what is essential to the divine message and what are the non-essential particulars of its initial historical reception. - The mix often comes across as "scandalous" to outsiders who might identify with what seems to be matters of universal significance but are put off by what appears to be culturally and historically specific particulars.
a new religious virtue appropriate for the study of religion in an age of religious pluralism that involves both joy at discovering a new spiritual view that attracts you and sadness that you cannot fully adopt such a view.
System of Symbols
The complex of stories, scriptures (if the tradition is literate), rituals, symbolic forms, and particular vocabulary for referring to what is taken to be ultimate reality, that as an interconnected whole constitute the core of a given religion.
Test of Empathy
- Its purpose is to test how well one's interpretation has captured and conveyed an insider's perspective. - The actual test is to see whether or not knowledgeable and thoughtful insiders can recognize and confirm your interpretation as correct.
Test of Neutrality
- Its purpose is to determine how well your account conveys transparently what it is you are interpreting, rather than what you think about. - The actual test is to see if a third party can detect your own bias/opinion in your interpretation.
- (of a system of symbols, of "another world to live in") - An entryway whereby one crosses the boundary from being outside the "other world" of a tradition to being inside it. - Though it may be symbolized by a physical threshold (as to a temple or shrine), it essentially refers to a shift of consciousness from focally attending to a tradition's symbols to subsidiarily attending from them to what they symbolize, which is to say coming to dwell within them.
- A change in the appearance of things when viewed from inside the system, rather than on the outside. - On the outside, symbols are opaque and at best refer to matters within that other world. - As one begins to cross the threshold, the symbols become translucent, presentational. - as one is able fully to cross the threshold, the symbols usher one into what seems to be the very presence of the sacred realities of which tradition speaks.
- A variable standing for whatever the people of a given tradition take to be the ultimate ground of meaning and purpose in life--both how things are and how life ought to be lived. - It stands for whatever is taken to make up the ultimate cosmic context of life that lies beyond the perspectives of ordinary human awareness and the mundane sphere of everyday life. - Ex. God
Way of Being Religious
- One generic manner and pattern among others of drawing near to and coming into right or appropriate relationship with what a religion takes to be ultimate reality. - Each way is further characterized in terms of a mode of approach to what is taken to be the ultimate reality, an aspect of the problem of meaning to which it is addressed, a hermeneutical orientation, a pattern of social structures, and specific virtues and vices.
Way of Devotion
- Cultivation of a personal relationship to "ultimate reality" of whole-hearted adoration, devotional surrender to "its" transforming grace, and trust in "its" providential care, anticipating in return an influx of sustaining energy, hope, and a sense of affirming presence or at-onement. - It typically involves a conversion experience and emotional purgation.
Way of Mystical Quest
- Employment of ascetic and meditative disciplines in a deliberate quest to break through and become free of, the obscuring limitations and distracting compulsions of ordinary life - in order to attain a direct awareness of "ultimate reality," come to be wholly at-one with it, and have life and one's relations with all things become transparently grounded in it.
Way of Reasoned Inquiry
- A rational struggle to transcend conventional patterns of thinking - in the effort to attain understanding of, and consciousness-transforming insight into, ?the ultimate what, how, and why of things?. - To bring together one?s own mind with ?the ultimate Mind? and thereby acquire a portion of ?divine wisdom?. - It typically involves systematic study of a tradition's scripture and previous attempts to articulate what is ultimately the case.
Way of Right Action
- the concerted effort to bring all of life, individual and communal, into conformity with the way things are ultimately supposed to be. - Pursuing the promise of individual fulfillment, social justice, and the embodiment of the divine ideal in the midst of this mundane, worldly life.
Way of Sacred Rite
- Participation in the sacred archetypal patterns through which "ultimate reality" is understood by participants - by means of symbolic ritual enactments and presentations - that enable participants repeatedly to enter their presence, attain at-onement with them, and thereby experience renewal. - It is typically communal rather than individual.
Way of Shamanic Mediation
- Entry into altered states of consciousness in which persons become mediators or channels for "supernatural" (trans-mundane) resources of imagination, power, and guidance for solving or dealing with otherwise intractable problems of life. - Pursuing at-onement with "ultimate reality" in its nature to bring about healing, well-being, and fulfillment for the world.
The family of major religious traditions which emerged in the Near East, primarily Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, each of which defines itself in certain respects in relation to the former as a further development or as a successor. All claim to be based upon a decisive revelation of "ultimate reality" as a person-like God.
- The 1st patriarch of the people of Israel - 1st person to live in covenant with God - the covenant would embrace the people of Israel (Jews = chosen people) - promise of homeland
- One of the two subject matters of the Oral
Torah - having to do with the purposes of the commandments - encompasses matters of belief (e.g., about the nature of God,
what actually happened at Mt.
Sinai, the last things,
life after death) - According to the Oral Torah,
interpretation of aggadah is not as restrictive as interpretation of halakhah
- One of
the most respected of the rabbis - interpretations and arguments are preserved
in the Talmud - died a martyr at the hands of the Romans
- The ceremony in which a 13 year old boy or girl becomes
an adult member of the Jewish community. - involves coming forward
to recite the formal blessing in Hebrew over the portion of the Torah to be
read in the synagogue service. - literally mean "son/daughter of the
commandment." - once the boy has completed the ceremony, he is qualified to become a part of the minyan (ten adult males) required for any Jewish worship service
- A boy's initiation ritual as a member of the
covenant between God and the people of Israel - involving removal of the
foreskin of the penis. - occurs on the 8th day after birth and is
called brit milah (covenant of circumcision).
- A movement in the latter half of the 19th
century attempting to adapt Judaism to modern life by balancing observing traditional laws and recognizing influences of historical progression in studying the Torah - middle ground between
Reform and Orthodox Judaism - emphasized the
relationship between the religion and the people. - It is the only Jewish
religious movement which has consistently supported Jewish nationalism
(Zionism), which issue is the crux of its split with Reform Judaism. - Founded by
Zecharias Frankel (1801-1975) in Germany
and later Solomon Schechter (1847-1915) in America.
- The special, ongoing relationship between God and the people of Israel,
- began with Abraham but reconfirmed and developed further at Mt. Sinai to
include all the people of Israel,
and involving Israel's
acceptance of God's Torah.
- The most loved and respected of the kings of Israel, - model of the messiah to come - the second of
the three kings who ruled over the ancient united
kingdom of Israel, reigning between 1002 and
- Separation of the people of Israel from
their homeland, the land believed to have been promised to Abraham and his
descendants, and their dispersal throughout the world
- The central story of Judaism - the
miraculous deliverance of the people of Israel from slavery in Egypt - under Moses' leadership - encompassing the
receiving of the Torah at Mt. Sinai, and 40 years of wandering in the
wilderness of Sinai before their entry into the "promised land."
- One of the two subject matters of the Oral
Torah - having to do with the commandments of God and their
implications - interpretation of halakhah must
issue in a single ruling of what the commandment of God implies for conduct - encompassses all of the Torah's implications for human
conduct and all traditional interpretations of the same as a guide for Jewish
- A popular mystical and devotional Jewish
movement beginning in the 17th century in Eastern Europe - initially quite
distinct from traditional Rabbinic Judaism, but later home of the most strict
or ultra-orthodox of Judaists. - emphasizes emotion & intuition over reason,
non-scholarly piety over scholarship in the study of Torah, and worshipping God
through devotional joy.
The European Enlightenment of the 18th century
and its impact upon Jews of Europe, producing new forms of Jewish religious
life, assimilation of large numbers of Jews into the surrounding culture, and
provoking sometimes hostile reaction among those who continued to identify with
traditional beliefs and practices.
- One of the great first century CE rabbis whose
interpretations and arguments are preserved in the Talmud. - His definition of Judaism: "What is hateful to yourself do
not do to your fellow-man. That is the whole Torah. All the rest is commentary.
Now go and study."
Ancient term meaning "all-consuming
sacrificial fire," used since World War II to denote the destruction of
some 6 million Jews under the Nazis. (1933 - 1945)
- "he who
struggles with man and god and prevails" or "wins." - refers to: (a) Jacob, a grandson of Abraham, who is said to have first received the name
in an unusual encounter with a supernatural being; (b) the offspring of Jacob,
personified as a single person; (c) an ancient
united kingdom under kings Saul, David, and Solomon; (d) the northern kingdom,
after the united kingdom split in two, from Solomon's death until its
destruction by the Assyrians in 722 BCE; (e) the modern state of Israel founded
Israel Baal Shem Tov
- (1700-1760 CE): Founder of Hasidism - charismatic holy man, storyteller, mystic, wonder worker, and shaman. - interested in experience & emotion - "Master of the good name" - movement to re-embrace the religion
- Holiest city in the world for Judaists,
- established by King David as the capital of the ancient united Kingdom of Israel - it is believed God chose Jerusalem for his Temple. - The name means "city of
- Member of the people of Israel - in a special covenant (chosen people) with God in virtue of
which they are believed to bear certain special obligations (the commandments).
- Historically, the name derives from persons who were citizens of the Kingdom of Judah. - A person may be a Jew by birth or
by conversion to Judaism. - Jews never call themselves
"Jews" in Hebrew, but always
- The ancient southern kingdom into which the
united Kingdom of Israel split in 922 BCE, - centered in Jerusalem, - lasting until
its destruction in 586 by the Babylonians, - restored later in that century and
lasting until 70 CE. - This ancient kingdom/nation took its name from the name of
one of Jacob's 12 sons, who were thought to have settled what later became the ancient
southern kingdom of Judah.
A religious Jew; i.e., a Jew who identifies with
and practices Judaism as a religious faith.
- The Jewish mystical tradition - dedicated to discovering the esoteric, inner
meaning of the Torah, - using distinctively Jewish forms of meditation for
developing an awareness of divine powers at work in the world and within
oneself, and endeavoring to cooperate with God in the redemption of the world.
- The name Kabbalah refers to the teaching concerning the 10 sepherot, of which God is said to have created
the Hebrew word kashrut, meaning ?fit to eat.? - it refers to food
selected and prepared according to Jewish dietary rules and under rabbinical supervision.
- (1141-1205 CE): The greatest Jewish
philosopher - brought together the philosophy of
Aristotle with the faith and practice of Judaism in his Guide for the
Perplexed - one of the greatest of the Medieval rabbis whose clarifying
summary of the entire Oral Torah, called Mishneh Torah, is still
regarded as among the best and most influential.
- Literally, the one annointed to be king. - The
human ruler who is forecast by the ancient Hebrew prophets for the end of days
to bring peace to humanity, to restore the people of Israel to sovereignty in
the promised land, and to rule over society in perfect accordance with the
Torah. - The symbol of the anticipated redemption of Israel and the world at large by
God. - It is a matter of aggadah,
- Any form of Judaism which is particularly
linked with the messiah or as
having already come. - In late biblical times, the Zealots, the Qumran
community, and Christianity were forms of
messianic Judaism. - In modern times, Reform Judaism, Zionism, and messianic
socialism are forms of messianic Judaism. - Although the Pharisees and the Rabbis of the Talmud did believe in
the Messiah, because they did not give belief in the Messiah central emphasis, scholars are reluctant to speak of the Pharisees and the Talmudic Rabbis
- The oldest portion of what is found the Talmud,
- compiled and edited by Rabbi Judah
around 200 CE, - representing the most authoritative legal
interpretations on halakhah which the Oral Torah had produced by that time - the Talmud proper is the Gemara which consists of
commentary on the Mishnah
-(plural: mitzvot): - A good deed or virtuous action. - refers
to a commandment of God given in the Torah - intended to be carried out by members of
the covenant, thereby making sacred the area of life to which it
pertains. - According to traditional reckoning, there are 613 mitzvot in the
- Greatest of the Hebrew prophets, - leader of Israel
through the Exodus, - receiver from God of the Torah at Mt. Sinai, - the one human
of whom it is said that he spoke with God face to face.
- Part of the Whole Torah that is said to have
been given by God to Moses (and through Moses to the people of Israel) at Mt.
Sinai, - consisting specifically of the practical know-how for appropriately
interpreting the Torah - learned through oral apprenticeship
from masters of the Oral Torah and is practiced orally to this day in groups of
two or more persons. - The commandment to study the Torah, is understood to mean participation, to the extent that
one is able, in the Oral Torah.
- The reaffirmation of traditional
Rabbinic Judaism within the modern world, - believing that God gave both the
Written Torah and the Oral Torah for its
interpretation, - accepts as binding the interpretations of the Oral
Torah in full continuity with the pre-modern past. Especially identified with
the position taken by Samson Raphael Hirsch (1808-1888) in opposition to Reform
- Spring holiday festival, lasting eight days,
centering upon a ritual meal taking place usually in the home and - commemorates
liberation from slavery in Egypt
by the miraculous power of God under the leadership of Moses. - eating unleavened bread (matzah)
- the first great Jewish philosopher,
who lived in the first century CE in Alexandria,
Egypt. - He
synthesized the philosophy of Plato and ancient Stoicism with Biblical religion
and came to have a powerful influence on subsequent theology and philosophy,
especially Christian thought.
Literally, "my master." Title for a
master, teacher, and ordained judge of the Oral Torah. Not until modern times
did a rabbi come to exercise the roles of leader of worship, pastor, and
- post-Biblical Judaism - accepting the theory and practice of the Oral Torah - The rabbis of the Oral Torah, accordingly
occupy the place of religious leadership in all aspects of religious life in
this form of Judaism.
- Jewish religious movement advocating change of
tradition to conform to the conditions of modern life. - Abraham Geiger formed reform in an effort to counter secular nationalism - Reform Judaism holds halahkah to be a human creation and not binding upon modern Jews; - it does not take
the Written Torah to be literally given by God - it
tends to universalize all Jewish teachings and minimize what traditionally has
made Jews other than or different from non-Jews. - It interprets the messianic
hope in a figurative way as a vision of justice for all people of which they
see it is the mission of Jews to spread.
- A communication by God to human beings of a
particular historical time and place of matters that its recipients would not
otherwise know about God and his will for human beings. - According to
traditional Judaism, the greatest revelation, eclipsing all others, is the
revelation of the Torah of God at Mt. Sinai to Moses and the people of Israel.
- The Jewish weekly holy day, a day in which
Jews are commanded to rest from labor and devote themselves to worship, study
of Torah, and family. - It lasts from Friday at sunset to Saturday at sunset. - commemorates the seventh day of Creation, in which God is said to have rested
from the labor of creating the heavens and the earth and all of its creatures.
- Proclamation of the unity of God: "Hear,
O Israel, the Lord our God. The Lord is one." - Specifically, Deuteronomy
6:4-9, 11:13-21, Numbers 15:37-41. - Sometimes said to be the closest thing to a
creed in Judaism.
Siddur/Order of Prayer
- The traditional structure of congregational
prayer for all days except special holy days. - established
by the rabbis of the Mishnah, setting order of worship for subsequent
post-Biblical Judaism. - The order of worship followed by a Jewish group is
usually in book form, and is called the Siddur.
A mountain in the wilderness of the Sinai
peninsula where Moses and the people of Israel
are said to have received the Torah from God, shortly following their Exodus
- Mishnah plus commentary on the Mishnah, called
Gemara, - produced in rabbinical academies in Palestine
and in Babylonia
between 200 CE and 700 CE. - The Talmud (Mishnah and Gemara taken together) is the primary
literary expression of the Oral Torah.
The Jewish scriptures; an acronym made up of Torah,
Neviim (the books of the Prophets), and Ketubim (the Writings,
including the Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon).
- Amulets worn by adult males at
morning prayer, - based on Exodus and Deuteronomy - These passages of the Torah are written on parchment, placed in leather cases,
to which are attached long leather straps, and worn on left arm and forehead,
with the straps wrapped around the left arm, hand, and finger -- signifying,
among other things, the restrictions placed upon a Judaist?s physical and
The 1st & 2nd Temples
- The place in Jerusalem where God is said to have chosen to
be worshiped by means of an elaborate system of sacrificial rituals. - The center
of Jewish religious life from the time of Moses to the building of the first
temple by Solomon was this system of sacrificial rituals at a portable
sanctuary. - Except for the Babylonian exile in the middle of the 6th century
BCE, between the destruction of the First
Temple and the building of the Second Temple
under Nehemiah, - this system of sacrificial rituals at the Temple
continued unabated until 70 CE, when the Second Temple
was destroyed by the Romans. - There have been no Temple and no sacrificial rituals since then.
- The central symbol of Judaism, - signifying
first of all what was revealed by God to the people of Israel at Mt.
Sinai - laying out the
way of life given by God for the people of Israel. - the
first five books of the Hebrew Bible (the Written Torah), especially in the
form of the Torah scroll, - the focus of Jewish worship. - By extension it
includes the whole of the Hebrew Bible. - For Rabbinic Judaism, it includes also
the Oral Torah - Finally it is said mystically to refer to the esoteric principles that
structure heart of all of creation.
- The first five books of the Hebrew Bible: * Genesis * Exodus * Leviticus * Numbers * Deuteronomy. - According to Rabbinical
Judaism, the Written Torah was given
by God, - complemented by the Oral Torah,
also given by God, - to interpret and apply the Written Torah to living out what
God has intended.
- The city in Palestine
where a rabbinical academy was established after the destruction of the Second Temple
- to determine and shape what would become of subsequent Judaism. - The Siddur and
the substance of what became the Mishnah were its principal products.
- The holiest day of the Jewish year, the Day of
Atonement, 8-9 days after Rosh Hashanah - celebrating the creation of the world - the people of Israel fast and gather in their
synagogues to make up for the wrongs they have committed toward their neighbors,
confess their to God, and seek his forgiveness and blessing.
- The mountain on which Jerusalem
and the Temple was built - also symbolic of
the entire Jewish homeland, the "promised land" of Palestine. - Traditionally, the place where
redemption is to begin and where the messiah is to begin his reign.
- A modern, secular movement
to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine
- in response to a recognition that modern Western societies would never wholly accept Jews in their difference from other
peoples. - Founded in 1897 by Theodor Herzl.
most important and influential book of Kabbalah - composed by
Moses de Leon in Spain in the 13th century and completed in the 14th century - a
mystical commentary claiming to find profound esoteric meanings beneath every
detail of the Torah.
- the books of the prophets - historical works
- Sacred writings - incl. psalms, proverbs, poetry, history
- commentary on the Mishnah - links the oral to the written Torah - Gemara and Mishnah form the Talmud
- type of Talmudic lit - attached to Bible - usually for trad.s that were derived from the bible - commentaries
Dead Sea Scrolls
- found by Bedouins in 7 caves by Dead Sea - religious manuscripts preserved for 2000 yrs - oldest Biblical texts ever found - written in Hewbrew - incl. Book of Isaiah
- collaborators with Rome - associated with Temple in Jerusalem & religious power structure - kept peace with Romans - at odds with Essenes - 2nd temple period, 1st century - rejected Oral Torah, insisted on written Torah
- 1st century, 2nd temple period - teachers associated with synagogues - believed in Oral Torah with written Torah - precursor to Rabbinic Judaism - survives past 1st century
- 1st century - strove to abide by Torah (Halakah) - disgusted with Sadducees & Pharisees, moved out of Jerusalem to Qumran - called themselves "sons of light/sons of darkness" (strict commitment to dietary laws and celibacy) - against Romans
- hated/fought against Rome - had most impact - instigated the Great Revolt - attacked small Roman forces in Jerusalem, but were eventually overtaken by Romans in yr 70 because of Jews' civil war in Jerusalem
- on Dead Sea shores - where Dead Sea scrolls were found
- zealots who survived the Great Revolt fled here - to defend themselves against Romans - Romans built ramps and weapons to breach Masada's walls - when it became apparent that Romans would not quit until they had defeated all Zealots, the Jews at Masada chose suicide rather than surrendering to Roman control - shows Jewish resistance and desire to survive
- Jew from Jerusalem, fled to cave where supposed to commit suicide with others, but instead surrendered to Romans - wrote about the Great Revolt, destruction of the 2nd Temple, Jewish history (The Jewish War) - writings were biased and never considered fact because he was a prisoner of the Romans
- divine powers of God that make Him "unknowable" - according to Kabbalah - Mysticism
- (God's) divine presence - in Kabbalah, linked to feminism
- commemorates when Israelites lived in the wilderness after Exodus - lived in temporary shelters - ingathering of crops (palm frond, myrtle and willow branches, citron)
- lighting of the lamps, festival of lights - commemorates the victory of Jews over religious persecution and the rededication of the Temple after its defilement - oil lasted for 8 nights
- commemorates Jews being saved from execution during Persian empire - in book of Esther
- literature is southern oriented - God brings judgement upon people who do not make the covenant
- sacred name of God in Jewish scriptures and tradition - "yahweh" - pronounced "adonai" (lord) in trad. Judaism
- teacher of Kabbalah - thought to be Messiah - leader of Islamic kingdom told him he could choose between death and Isalm - converted to Islam - therefore, not Messiah
- "ethics of the fathers" - book in the Oral law - moral advice
and insights of the leading rabbinic scholars of different
generation - cites Hillel - studied on the Sabbath
- 1885 - expresses ethic in Reform Judaism - said Jews have a role in shaping what Judaism looks like in the modern world
- zionist - founded Jewish National Committe during WWI - I-thou relationships with others to truly understand them - dialogue is necessary - God as the eternal thou - reaffirms Jews' relationship with God - through dialogue (- its ok to be mad at him)
- term coined by Wilhelm Marr in 1879 as a more "polite" term for Jew-hatred - semite refers to Jews
- 1917, WWI - British gov created a national home for Jewish people in Palestine - created violence between immigrants (Jews) and natives (Arabs)
Six Day War
- June 5-10, 1967 - Syria, Egypt, Jordan, Iraq had Israel surrounded, but did not launch full attacks - June 5, Israel launched a surprise attack on Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq's air forces - war continued for 6 days - Israel gained control of Sinai, Golan Heights, Gaza strip, West Bank, Jerusalem, Western Wall (2nd Temple), - 3 times the area they controlled before the war
Yom Kippur War
- October 6,1973, Yom Kippur - Egypt invaded Sinai penninsula - Syria invaded Golan Heights - Israel managed to maintain territories - instigated political influence form zionists
Camp David Accords
- 1978 - Peace treaty signed by Anwar Sadat, pres. of Egypt, and Menachem Begin, prime minister of Israel - witnessed by US pres. Jimmy Carter - led to Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty of 1979
- 1986 - street revolts by Palestinians against Israel - West bank, Gaza, Jerusalem - orchestrated and ended by PLO
- 1991 - Declaration of Principles - Israel and PLO to end conflict, recognize mutual political rights, and to live in peaceful coexistence - Palestinians to control Gaza and West Bank for 5 yrs
- zionist - wrote The Jewish State - 1896 - "Jews need a place to live" - self-identity - focus on Palestine - self-determination - first zionist congress - 1897
Israel Independence day
- May 14, 1948 - same day as British Mandate for Palestine ended - established the State of Israel - signed by Jewish People's Council in Tel Aviv - David Ben Gurion - recognized by US same day
- followed UN Partition vote in 1947 that gave Israel power over Arab land - Arabs attacked Jewish communities
Destruction of 2nd Temple
- 70 CE - Roma's destruction of Jerusalem - ended Kingdom of Judah (national status for people of Israel) - instigated exile/diaspora - Jews continued to live in Palestine
Bar Kokhba Revolt
- 132-135 CE - Roman ruler established a place in Jerusalem for Jews to rebuild Temple - when Hadrian left, Jews rebelled for "the freedom of Israel" - Romans fought back, demolishing cities, withholding food, eventually winning - changed city's name from Judah to Syria
Biblical Period (4004 BCE-70 CE)
- 4004 - Creation of the World (Bishop Ussher) - 1800 - Age of the Patriarchs - Abraham - 1400-1200 - Moses, Exodus, Passover - 1000 - United Kingdom - Saul, David (Messiah), Solomon (1st temple) - 922 - Divided Kingdom - Israel and Judah - 722 - Assyrians conquer Northern Kingdom (Israel) - 586 - Babylonians conquer Southern Kingdom (Judah) - 538 - Cyrus of Persia - allows Jews to return from exile & rebuild Temple - 164 - Epiphanes, Maccabees, Hanukkah - 63 - Romans conquer Palestine
Want to see the other 125 Flashcards in Judaism Test?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!