According to the text, sexual abuse accusations often:
are made in conjunction with marital disputes
Psychologists suggest that maltreatment encourages children to use ___ as a means of solving problems and prevents them from feeling empathy for others.
According to the text, four categories of family dysfunction seem to promote delinquent behavior. Which of the following is not one of these four categories?
Which of the following statements about gender-specific effects of divorce is false?
Boys are more affected by post-divorce parental conflict.
About 90 percent of day care providers:
The __ child may suffer the most from resource dilution.
Nye established a link between parental conflict and delinquency with the finding that:
A child's perception of marital happiness was a significant predictor of delinquency.
Homebuilders is an in-home, intensive family preservation service and reunification program for families with youth at-risk for system involvement. Which of the following is NOT among its core program strategies?
Large caseload with more time availability
Delinquency will be reduced if parents provide the type of structure that integrates children into families, while giving them the ability to assert their individuality and regulate their own behavior, a phenomenon referred to as ___.
Approximately what percent of children live with two parents?
Which of the following is false with concern to child witnesses in the courtroom?
Some states require that the defendant be present to directly question the child.
Which of the following best describes a blended family?
nuclear families that are the product of divorce and remarriage
Approximately what percent of teens today that give birth are unmarried?
A _ is a lawyer appointed by the court to look after the interests of those who do not have the capacity to assert their own rights.
guardian ad litem
Which of the following children is least likely to live in a two-parent household?
an African American child
What is known about the abuse-delinquency link?
Kids maltreated solely during early childhood may be less likely to engage in chronic delinquency.
Which of the following is not among the research findings on the association between divorce and delinquency?
Remarriage lessens the effects of divorce on youth.
In a 1992 case, _ the Supreme Court ruled that the state's attorney is required neither to produce young victims at trial nor to demonstrate the reason why they were unavailable to serve as witnesses.
White v. Illinois
According to the latest information, what racial and/or ethnic category has the highest birth rate?
At the _, the attorney for the social service agency presents an overview of the case and the evidence; matters such as admissibility of photos and written reports are settled. The attorneys can negotiate a settlement of the case, in which the parents accept a treatment plan.
In _, the Supreme Court ruled that the due process clause of the Constitution protects against government interference with certain fundamental rights and liberty interests, including parents' fundamental right to make decisions concerning the care, custody, and control of their children.
Troxel v. Granville
Which of the following is not among the elements that distinguish between effective and ineffective families?
In _, the Court ruled that one-way CCTV could serve as the equivalent of in court testimony and would not interfere with the defendant's right to confront witnesses.
Maryland v. Craig
If the state intervenes and prosecutes Tom's parents, what is the first step of the process?
States have relaxed their laws of evidence to allow out-of-court statements by the child to a social worker, teacher, or police officer to be used as evidence such statements would otherwise be considered:
What is the association between James' mom's employment and his delinquency?
It is unknown.
A study of more than 4,000 youths in Denver, Pittsburgh, and Rochester found that the more often a child is forced to go through family transitions?
the more likely he or she is to become delinquent
Which of the following statements about the American family is false?
about one-quarter of all mothers of school-age children are employed
_ refers to deprivations children suffer at the hands of their parents, such as lack of food, shelter, and adequate health care.
At the _, the social service agency presents its case plan which includes visitation plans, services, or other conditions of the formal agreement.
Which of the following were not among the early American gangs?
What might be expected when Julie (gang member) gives birth?
She will drift away from the gang.
The _ is considered by some experts to be the most dangerous gang in the United States.
Which of the following statements about the impact of peer relations is true?
delinquent friends cause law-abiding youth to "get in trouble"
According to the _ view, female members are still sexually exploited by male gang boys and are sometimes forced to exploit other females.
According to _ theory, delinquents are as detached from their peers as they are from other elements of society.
Which of the following is NOT one of the largest African American gangs in the United States?
Subgroups of same-aged youths in Latino gangs that remain together and have separate names and a unique identity in the gang are known as _.
According to the _ view, gangs appeal to adolescents' longing for the tribal process that sustained their ancestors.
Which of the following statements best reflects control theory?
delinquents are detached from their conventional peers and from their delinquent peers
Which of the following statements about the psychological view of gang formation is true?
kids with personality problems form gangs and become leaders
What is not a form of communication used by gangs?
All: graffiti, hand signs, internet
Michael binge drinks with his closest friends. This is illustrative of:
A _ gang concentrates on drug use and sales but forgoes most delinquent behavior.
Klein notes that even the most criminal gang members spend the bulk of their time:
in noncriminal activities
With regard to Michael's long-term behavior patterns, what is true?
The influence of his peers is more important than Michael's parents.
_ was terrorized by organized gangs that called themselves, "Hectors," "Bugles," "Dead Boys," and other colorful names.
An estimated 28,000 gangs containing about _ gang members were active in the United States.
A clique is defined as:
small groups of friends who share activities and confidences
According to the text, females are involved in gangs in three ways. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
as back-up gangs
What is NOT a reason attributed to the reemergence of gang activity in the 1970s?
Local youth have access to conventional careers.
Data from the Rochester Youth Development Study indicate gang members account for a significant portion of all violent and drug crimes. According to the text, these data support which of the following theories?
rational choice theory
Co-offending is defined as:
the tendency to commit delinquent acts in small groups rather than alone
The earliest gangs, the Wah Ching, were formed in the nineteenth century by Chinese youths affiliated with adult crime groups called:
According to Thrasher, _ areas are cracks and voids in the social, political, and economic fabric of society.
Which is NOT one of the unique characteristics of the racial gang provided in the scenario?
According to Fagan, which of the following categories of gangs is "on the verge of becoming a formal criminal organization"?
an organized gangs
Given John's propensity towards being aggressive and the extremes of whether or not he is liked, what might he be considered?
Controversial youth status
Which of the following statements about gangs in the 1950s and 1960s is false?
By the mid-1960s, the gang menace seemed to have peaked.
According to the text, schools with fewer behavioral problems in the student body are characterized by:
Prevention of school bullying has taken many forms, what is NOT one of the methods?
School assemblies outing bullies
What statement with regards to schools is false?
The school plays no role in shaping the values of children.
Policies that mandate specific consequences or punishments for delinquent acts and do not allow anyone to avoid these consequences are referred to as:
zero tolerance policies
High schools with a completion rate of 40% or less are known as:
According to the text, about _ percent of schools use random metal detectors.
Which of the following is NOT an educational factor related to dropping out?
Missing 10% of instructional time in a school year
Research by Dorn lead him to believe that:
The dropout problem is a function of inequality of educational opportunity rather than the failure of individual students.
Schools can drug test student athletes according to the United States Supreme Court decision in:
Vernonia School District v. Acton
In Marvin Wolfgang's Philadelphia cohort study, those who were more likely to become involved in chronic delinquency:
left school without a diploma
What statement about improving school climate and security is false?
Early identification of at-risk students and removing them from the school will assist in lowering the crime rate in the school.
In what case did the Supreme Court rule that search measures used by school officials to root out contraband must be "reasonably related to the objectives of the search and not excessively intrusive in light of the age and sex of the student and the nature of the infraction?"
Safford Unified School District v. Redding
What legal doctrine gives the schools the right to assume some of the duties of parents, including discipline?
in loco parentis
In _ (2001), the Supreme Court required an upstate New York school district to provide space for an after-school Bible club for elementary students.
Good News Club v. Milford Central School
A school-based prevention program based on behavioral strategies is most likely to involve:
training students to resist peer pressure
Which of the following best describes the United States Supreme Court ruling in Ingraham v Wright concerning corporal punishment in schools?
neither the Eighth nor the Fourteenth Amendment was violated by a teacher's use of corporal punishment to discipline students
Which of the following is not a correlate of school failure according to the text?
Which of the following statements about bullying is false?
Studies suggest that victims of bullying in early grades are less likely to be bullied later
What Supreme Court case ruled that any time a student is to be suspended for up to 10 days, he or she is entitled to a hearing?
Goss v. Lopez
Over time the overall dropout rate has:
What percent of schools reported bullying among students on a daily or weekly basis?
Approximately what percentage of high school students drop out?
In what case did the Supreme Court hold that with regard to searches and seizures school officials are not bound by the same restrictions as law enforcement agents?
New Jersey v. TLO
_ is a form of expression protected by the First Amendment but not associated with actually speaking words.
According to the profile developed by the U.S. Secret Service, school shootings:
involve shooters with a history of being bullied
Research indicates that the social and educational atmosphere of a school:
is one of the most important predictors of levels of violence.
In the 1986 case, Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser, the Supreme Court upheld a school system's right to:
discipline a student who uses obscene or profane language and gestures
If Drew started using substances at an early age, what more than likely was the gateway drug for Drew?
Which of the South American countries has not agreed to coordinate drug control efforts with the United State?
Which of the following is the most powerful natural stimulant?
According to the text, how do family factors impact drug use?
Drug abuse patterns may result from observation of parental drug use.
According to the text, about _ percent of youths who use more serious drugs started on marijuana.
If a user were to inject a mixture of both cocaine and heroin, what is it called?
Although the gateway concept is still being debated, there is little disagreement that serious drug users begin their involvement with:
_ is probably the most dangerous commonly abused drug.
Annually, it is estimated that the economic cost of methamphetamine use in the United States exceeds?
According to the text, the association between drug use, race, and poverty has been linked to the:
high level of mistrust and defiance of law enforcement found in lower socioeconomic areas
A _ is a substance that leads to the use of more serious drugs.
The most recent report from the National Institute of Justice's Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring found that:
among juvenile detainees, almost 60 percent of the males tested positive for marijuana.
Which of the following is false with concern to drug use and delinquency?
A relationship between alcohol and drug abuse and delinquency has not been substantiated by research.
Which of the following statements about harm reduction approaches is false?
Harm reduction strategies have only been successful when implemented in residential facilities
Which statement is false with regard to those who persist in both substance abuse and crime?
They do well in school.
Natural substances that produce vivid distortions of the senses without greatly disturbing consciousness are known as:
Which of the following is not a main form of methamphetamines?
The practice of mixing _ with cocaine is known as speedballing.
Global rate of interception of cocaine indicate what percent of all imports are seized by law enforcement?
According to the Elliott research, which is not an important association between substance abuse and delinquency?
Youths who use prescription pain medication engage in more serious delinquent acts.
Volatile liquids that give off a vapor and produce short-term excitement and euphoria followed by a period of disorientation, are known as:
throwing, shooting, stabbing, burning, drowning, etc.
lack of concern, inadequate attention
Main ingredient in marijuana
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
To justify prohibiting an expression of opinion the school must be able to show that its action was caused by something more than a desire to avoid the unpleasantness that accompanies the expression of an unpopular view.
Santa Fe Independent School District, Petitioner v. Jane Doe (2000)
Placed restrictions on prayer within schools, particularly with the football team
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
Court extended the right of school officials to censor active speech when it ruled that the principal could censor articles in a student publication
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