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Cyberbullying is the willfuland repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text. According to the text, which of the followingstatements is false with regard to this phenomenon?
The Children’s Defense Fund has identifiedall but which of the following as leading kids to prison?
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitorshealth-risk behaviors among youth and young adults. Which of the following is true about theirhealth-risk behaviors?
There is apotential for risky behavior among youth in all facets of American life. The social,
economic,and political circumstances that increase adolescent risk taking include allbut which of the following?
These allowed for the appointment of overseers to place destituteor neglected children as servants in the homes of the affluent, where they weretrained in agricultural, trade, or domestic services.
The legislation passed to form the first juvenile court was:
According to the text, what established juvenile delinquency as a legal concept?
The principles motivating reformers whosought a separate justice system for juveniles included all but which of thefollowing?
Which of the following statements is falseregarding the initial establishment of juvenile courts?
In 1967, the President’s Commission on Law Enforcementand the Administration of Justice, organizedby President Lyndon Johnson, helped change the shape of juvenile justice in allbut which of the following ways?
Many states enacted or strengthened existing parentalliability statutes that make parents criminally liable for the actions of theirdelinquent children. These laws can generally fall into one of threecategories. Which category is false?
Which of the following statements about parental liability laws isfalse?
How many juveniles are arrested annuallyfor status-type offenses?
Running away and underage consumption of alcohol represent:
States classify status offenders using differentterms. Which term listed is false?
What is the term that refers to a minor child who hasbeen found to violate the penal code?
About 5.5 million youths underthe age of eighteen are arrested each year. (T/F)
8. The medieval child hasbeen described as a “miniature adult” who began to work and accept adult rolesat an early age and was treated with great cruelty. (T/F)
Urbanization generated the beliefthat certain segments of the population (youths in urban areas, immigrants)were susceptible to the influences of their decaying environment. (T/F)
The House of Refuge was developedto protect potential criminal youths by taking them off the street andproviding a family-like environment.(T/F)
State control over a child’snoncriminal behavior supports the parens patriae philosophy, because itis assumed to be in the best interests of the child.(T/F)
The Office of Juvenile Justiceand Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is authorizedto distribute grants and provide support to those states that developedalternate procedural methods to handle status offenders and improve thejuvenile justice system…..? (T/F)
Which of the following is aPart I offense?
Which of the following is a PartII offense?
What does a UCR-reported murderrate of 4.8 mean?
The National Crime VictimizationSurvey (NCVS) collects victimization data on individuals age _____ and older.
________________ arequestionnaire or survey techniques that ask subjects to reveal their ownparticipation in delinquent or criminal acts.
In 2010, juveniles wereresponsible for about ___ percent of the property crime arrests.
About ______________ juvenilearrests were made in 2010 for Part II offenses.
According to the text, which ofthe following statements is true?
The annual nationalself-report survey of 8th, 10th, and 12thgraders conducted by the Institute for Social Research (ISR) is called________________________________.
Among the factors that influencedelinquency rate trends, which is false?
For which of the following actsare females more likely than males to be taken into custody?
Males commit _____ propertyoffenses for every one committed by females.
Males commit _____ seriousviolent offenses for every 1 committed by females.
In terms of race anddelinquency, the official statistics show that:
Which of the following is one ofthe major criticisms of official crime data?
Which of the followingprivileges would not result in greater equality for minority children?
____________________________ areresponsible for the majority of serious delinquent acts.
__________ is the age atwhich youths begin their delinquent careers.
The aging-out process ofcriminal behavior is also referred to as:
Early and repeated delinquencyis the best predictor of:
In the Pennsylvania birth cohortfollow-up, it was found that chronic offenders had a(n)_____ percent chanceof becoming adult offenders.
Which of the followingstatements is true?
-Kids who engage in the most serious forms of delinquency are more likely to be members of the lower class
-Chronic offenders commit a significant portion of all delinquent acts
-Those who demonstrate antisocial tendencies at a very early age are more likely to commit more crimes for a longer duration
Childhood risk factors forpersistent delinquency include all of the following, except:
Which of the followingstatements about the victimization of teens is true?
Manslaughter and forcible rapeare examples of part II offenses. (T/F)
Liquor law violations and drugtrafficking are examples of part II offenses. (T/F)
In 2010, juveniles accounted for1% of all arrests for part I offenses. (T/F)
According to the text, girls aremore likely than boys to be arrested as runaways. (T/F)
About 70 percent of all arrestsin 2010 involved white Americans. (T/F)
The NCVS is a household survey of offenders that measures the nature of the crime and the characteristics of the offenders. (T/F)
According to choice theorists, offenders:
According to the concept of ________________, if offenders are punished severely, the experience will convince them not to repeat their illegal acts.
Which of the following statements about specific deterrence is false?
In the 1990s, various deterrence-based strategies were implemented based on the increase in teenage violence. Which of the following is not one of those policies?
According to the text, which of the following is not among the problems that exist with relying on a deterrence-based strategy to control delinquency?
Which of the following statements about situational crime prevention efforts is true?
Which of the following is not a symptom of ADHD?
Biosocial theorists believe antisocial behavior characteristics and mental disorders have a genetic influence. Which of the following statements is an indirect connection?
Among the approaches that have tested the gene-delinquency association include: Twin studiesc.Parental deviance Adoption studiesd.All of the above
All of the above
The __________________ develops through interactions with parents and others and represents the conscience and the moral rules that are shared by most adults.
Erik Erikson coined the term ____________________ to refer to a psychological state in which youth face inner turmoil and uncertainty about life roles.
According to the text, what disorder is not linked to antisocial youth?
Which theorist developed the stages of moral development?
As the number of arrests increases, the deterrent effect becomes stronger. (T/F)
Which of the following statements is false?
William Julius Wilson described the members of the urban underclass as the:
Shaw and McKay called areas where delinquency rates were high and had changed from affluence to decay _________________________.
Which of the following best describes social disorganization theory principles?
Which of the following statements about communities on the downswing is false?
Which statement is false regarding fear in socially disorganized neighborhoods?
When the values of a subculture clash with those of the dominant culture, this is called:
According to Elijah Anderson, there are two cultural forces running through poor
neighborhoods that shape their reactions. These are street values and
Which of the following statements is true?
a.Poor kids are less likely to commit crimes because they are able to achieve social success in other ways
b.Kids who live in socially disorganized areas commit crime because the forces of social control have broken down
c.There is little evidence of a relationship between the elements of socialization and delinquency
d.Simply living in a violent neighborhood produces violent children
There are more than ______________ youths living in poverty in the United States.
In Hirschi's social control theory, attachment, commitment, involvement, and
_____________________ are elements of the bond to society.
Which of the following theories centers around a view of society in which an elite class uses the law as a means of meeting threats to its status?
According to the text, restorative justice:
Which of the following is not one of the principles of restorative justice?
a.victims, offenders, and communities are the key stakeholders not the justice system
b.victims and communities suffer from crime and they need to be restored
c.offenders have an obligation to make amends and they should do so voluntarily
d.offenders should be removed from the community as punishment for their misdeeds
Learning theories assume that children are born good and learn to be bad. (T/F)
Which of the following is nota developmental theory?
Regarding the similarities ofthe developmental theories, which statement is false?
Delinquency must be viewed as a path rather than an event
Delinquent careers are a passage
Focus on delinquent careers
People are constantly evolving
______________________ refers toa cluster of antisocial behaviors which include family dysfunction, substanceabuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy.
According to development theory,the best predictor of future criminality is:
Which is not a principleof the life-course approach?
a)Some individuals are incapable of maturing in a reasonable and timely fashion.
b)As people mature, the factors that influence their behavior change.
c)The decision to violate the law comes after a careful weighing of the benefits and costs of criminal behaviors.
d)Early onset of antisocial behavior predicts later and more serious criminality.
A cornerstone of age-gradedtheory is the influence of _______________ on behavior.
According to research, done on love and delinquency, who is most likelyto desist from delinquency?
Kids who engage in sex
Young women who become mothers
Young men in a romantic relationship
Young married couples
According to age-graded theory,prevention of delinquency can be achieved through four significantlife-changing events. Which is not oneof those events?
a)Joining the military, b)Marriage, c)Changing one’s environment, d)Getting arrested
The social development modelintegrates a number of theories. Whichtheory is not one of them?
Which of the following bestdescribes the onset of crime according to interactional theory?
Which of the following theoriesattributes delinquent behavior patterns to childhood socialization and pro- orantisocial attachments over the life course?
Which of the following statements about latent trait theory is false?
a)People do not change, criminal opportunities change
b)Early social control and proper parenting can reduce criminal propensity
c)Unchanging personal factors are more important determinants of behavior
d)Nurture not nature determines one’s propensity to crime
Burt and her associates found that kids whose parents improved their parenting skills over time experienced an increase in self-control and a subsequent:
Gottfredson and Hirschi trace the root cause of poor self-control to what?
Which of the following is not among the criticisms of the general theory of crime?
b)Underlying personality disorder
c)Levels of self-control vary throughout the life-course
d)The role of social control agents in the process of delinquency
What role does environment have on impulsivity according to Gottfredson and Hirschi?
The _______________, identified by Loeber and his associates, begins at an early age with stubborn behavior; it leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance.
Which of the following choices best describes the authority conflict pathway?
a)begins at an early age with stubborn behavior leading to defiance and to authority avoidance
b)begins with minor, underhanded behavior that leads to property damage and eventually escalates to more serious forms of criminality
c)begins with aggression, leading to physical fighting and then to violence
d)begins with drug use and de-escalates to status offenses
Which of the following pathways describes a situation where a delinquent career begins with minor, underhanded behavior and eventually escalates into more serious criminality?
a)authority conflict pathway
Which of the following choices best describes the covert pathway?
Which of the following choices best describes the overt pathway?
c)escalates to aggressive acts beginning with aggression, leading to physical fighting and then to violence
Research demonstrates that life-course persisters possess certain characteristics. Which of the following is false?
a)ife-course persisters manifest significantly more mental health problems.
b)Life-course persisters display a negative or impulsive personality.
c)Life-course persisters are impaired on spatial and memory functions.
d)Life-course persisters only mimic the antisocial behavior of others.
Kids who never break the law and whose conventional behavior makes them deviant in the teenage world where offending is the norm are known as:
Which is not a specific risk factor that Farrington associates with forming a delinquent career based on the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development?
A)Being thoughtful and deliberate
B)Erratic parental discipline
C)Poor performance in school
Which statement is false regarding the principles of trajectory theory?
A)There are different pathways to crime and different types of criminals.
B)Unconscious motivations developed early in childhood propel some people into destructive or illegal behavior.
C)Some career criminals specialize in crime while others engage in a variety of criminal acts.
D)Some offenders may begin their careers early in life, whereas others are late bloomers.
What is not among the policy-based initiatives based on premises of developmental theory presented in the text?
A)Teaching parents disciplinary techniques that stress firmness and consistency
B)Teaching parents about the risk and protective factors for substance abuse
C)Strengthening children’s social-emotional competence and positive coping skills
D)Holding offenders accountable to victims and ensuring community safety.
The Boys and Girls Clubs include a school component called SMART, which is designed to:
Nicole is 14-years old with a juvenile record that dates back to when she was 10-years old. Her latest charge is possession and use of marijuana. It has been documented that she engaged in antisocial behaviors since pre-school, has performed poorly in school, and family dysfunction is present.
What do we know about early onset of deviance?
Nicole is 14-years old with a juvenile record that dates back to when she was 10-years old. Her latest charge is possession and use of marijuana. It has been documented that she engaged in antisocial behaviors since pre-school, has performed poorly in school, and family dysfunction is present. What do we know about early onset of deviance?
Nicole is 14-years old with a juvenile record that dates back to when she was 10-years old. Her latest charge is possession and use of marijuana. It has been documented that she engaged in antisocial behaviors since pre-school, has performed poorly in school, and family dysfunction is present. Delinquency is but one of many social problems faced by at-risk youth. Given the scenario, what are the behaviors and risk factors known as collectively?
Given Nicole’s host of issues, what might the general theory of crime posit that she lacks?
Nicole is 14-years old with a juvenile record that dates back to when she was 10-years old. Her latest charge is possession and use of marijuana. It has been documented that she engaged in antisocial behaviors since pre-school, has performed poorly in school, and family dysfunction is present. In order to help Nicole desist from a life of crime and deviance, what type of program would be advocated by developmental theorists?
Sam is a 78-year old male who engaged in antisocial and delinquent behavior from a young age. Once he turned 18, he enlisted in the military and became a career soldier. Since becoming a soldier and marrying, Sam cut ties with delinquent friends he hung out with when they skipped school, stopped drinking, and raised a successful family. According to age-graded theory, Sam’s military experience and marriage served as _________ in his delinquent career.
Sam is a 78-year old male who engaged in antisocial and delinquent behavior from a young age. Once he turned 18, he enlisted in the military and became a career soldier. Since becoming a soldier and marrying, Sam cut ties with delinquent friends he hung out with when they skipped school, stopped drinking, and raised a successful family.
Sam is a 78-year old male who engaged in antisocial and delinquent behavior from a young age. Once he turned 18, he enlisted in the military and became a career soldier. Since becoming a soldier and marrying, Sam cut ties with delinquent friends he hung out with when they skipped school, stopped drinking, and raised a successful family. What is the relationship between love, delinquency, and desistance according to age-graded theory?
Jerry participates in a variety of extreme sports, smokes weed, has gotten into bar fights, and occasionally involves himself in a burglary with friends. He performed poorly in school, and was raised in a low-income, single-parent household. His mom worked two jobs and was not around often to monitor Jerry’s activities when he was younger, most of which were delinquent in nature. What theory is best described in this scenario?
Jerry participates in a variety of extreme sports, smokes weed, has gotten into bar fights, and occasionally involves himself in a burglary with friends. He performed poorly in school, and was raised in a low-income, single-parent household. His mom worked two jobs and was not around often to monitor Jerry’s activities when he was younger, most of which were delinquent in nature.
Gottfredson and Hirschi would attribute __________________ to Jerry’s lack of self-control.
If one were to categorize Jerry using Moffitt’s research, where would he fall?
Using subjects in New Zealand, Wright and associates found that low self-control in childhood predicts disrupted social bonds and delinquent offending later in life. (T/F)
The covert pathway describes a situation where a delinquent career begins with minor, underhanded behavior and eventually escalates into more serious criminality. (T/F)
Which of the following statements about female delinquency based on hormones is false?
In the 1950s, research efforts made three assumptions about gender differences in socialization, which assumption is not related?
With regard to socialization, which of the following statements is false?
Research by Hawkins and colleagues looked at the resiliency of girls and found that among high-risk girls, fours factors may protect against some forms of delinquent behavior. Which factor is false?
In her study of gang girls in East Los Angeles, Moore found that close to _______ percent of the girls she interviewed were afraid of their fathers.
According to liberal feminists, increasing female offending patterns are caused by:
According to _____________________ theory, gender differences in delinquency rates are a function of class differences that influence family life.
Which is not a form of human trafficking?
The foremost expert on girls as "victims" of the juvenile justice system is?
According to socialization models, men are much more likely to feel distressed than women. (T/F)
The gender gap in crime and delinquency arrest has remained unchanged over the last 20 years.