a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
home based manufacturing
The Industrial Revolution resulted in ___________, ______________, and ____________ changes.
political; social; economic
The Industrial Revolution began in _______________ in the ______.
United Kingdom; late 1700s
The root of the Industrial Revolution was ____________.
The most important invention to the Industrial Revolution was _____________________.
the steam engine
The first industry to benefit from the steam engine was _____.
_____ is used to operate the ovens and the steam engines.
_________ was critical for diffusing the Industrial Revolution.
______ were a dispersed cottage industry before the Revolution, and then transformed into a concentrated factory system.
_________ were created in order to bleach and dye cloth.
_________ was essential to feed the workers no longer working on farms.
Industry is concentrated in _ of the _ world regions.
_______, ______________, and _________ are the three regions in which industry is concentrated.
Europe; North America; East Asia
The industrial regions in Europe are clustered in _________ Europe (centered on western ________ and extending north to the __ and south to _____ and _______) and in _______ Europe, primarily in _________________________.
Western; Germany; UK; Spain; Italy; Eastern; the former Soviet Union.
The United Kingdom
dominated world production of steel and textiles during the nineteenth century, no longer the world leader.
The Rhine-Ruhr Valley
Western Europe's most important and most centrally located industrial area. In this area, industry is dispersed rather than concentrated in one or two cities.
Iron and steel manufacturing is located in the Rhine-Ruhr Valley because of _____________________________________.
proximity to large coalfields
Western Europe's second most important industrial area. The German portion lacks abundant raw materials but lies at the center of the most important consumer market. The French portion contain's Europe's largest iron ore field.
The Po Basin
Southern Europe's oldest, most important industrial area; contains about 2/3 of Italy's manufacturing in 1/5 of its land. Modern development began with the establishment of the textile industry during the 19th century; area had two key assets: inexpensive hydroelectricity from the Alps and large labor supply
Western Europe's fastest-growing industrial area in the late twentieth century.
Spain's leading industrial area
Catalonia, centered on the city of Barcelona
Catalonia is the center of Spain's _________ industry and is the location of the country's largest ____________ plant.
textile; motor vehicle
Russia's oldest industrial area, centered around the country's capital and largest market. Specializes in fabrics and products requiring skilled labor.
Eastern Europe's second largest city, specializing in ship building
Russia's largest petroleum and natural gas fields, motor vehicle industry concentrated in Togliatti, oil refining in Kuybyshev, chemicals in Saratov, metallurgy in Volgograd, leather and fur in Kazan
contains more than 1,000 types of minerals, the most varied collection in the world. Proximity encouraged the Communists to locate iron and steel, chemicals, machinery, and metal fabricating in this area
Russia's most important manufacturing district east of the Ural Mountains, Soviets took advantage of the coal and iron ore to invest in factories there
In Eastern Ukraine, an area of coal, iron ore, manganese, natural gas. Eastern Europe's largest producer of iron and steel
Eastern Europe's leading industrial area outside of the former Soviet Union, includes southern Poland and northern Czech Republic, important steel production center
Industrial areas in North America
At time of independence, the US was a predominantly ___________ society.
Manufacturing in North America concentrated in the ___________ quadrant of the US and _______________ Canada.
The Northeast had essential raw materials, including _____ and ______.
The Great Lakes and major rivers were supplemented in the 1800s by ______, ________, and ___________.
canals; railways; highways
The oldest industrial area in the northeastern United States. Developed as an industrial center in the early nineteenth century, beginning with cotton textiles.
The largest US market. It attracts industries that need proximity to a large number of consumers and depend on foreign trade through one through one of the region's large ports. Other firms seek locations near the financial, communications, and entertainment industries
A linear industrial belt in upper New York State along the Hudson River and Erie Canal. Buffalo was the regions most important industrial center, especially for steel and food processing.
The leading steel producing area in the 19th century because of proximity to Appalacian coal and iron ore. Steel manufacturing originally concentrated in the area between Pittsburgh and Cleveland because of its proximityyt to Appalachian coal and iron ore.
Western Great Lakes
Centered on Chicago, the hub of the nation's transportation network, now the center of steel production. Motor-vehicle manufacturers and other industries that have a national market locate in the western Great Lakes area to take advantage of this convergence of transportation routes. This area supplies machine tools, transportation equipment, clothing, furniture, agricultural machinery, and food
The leading industrial area outside of the NE, when then US entered World War II in 1941, more than one third of Los Angeles' manufacturing was in the aircraft industry, attracted by clear skies, light winds, and mild winters. More recently, Los Angeles has become the country's largest area of clothing and textile production, the second-largest furniture producer, and a major food-processing center.
Canada's most important industrial area, central to the Canadian and US markets and near the Great Lakes and Niagra Falls. Most of Canada's steel production in concentrated in Hamilton, Ontario, and motor-vehicle assembly in the Toronto area.
East Asia's most abundant resource is _______.
Became an industrial power in the 1950s and 1960s initially by producing goods that could be sold in large quantity at cut-rate prices to consumers in other countries. Prices were kept low because of low wages.
World's largest supply of low-cost labor and the world's largest market for many consumer products. Clustered in three areas, near Guangdong and Hong Kong, the Yagtze River valley between Shanghai and Wuhan, and along the Gulf of Bo Hai from Tianjin and Beijing to Shenyang.
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