House of Burgesses: elected assembly in colonial Virginia created in 1618. Iroquois Confederation: an alliance among the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca Indians with whom the Dutch established trading relationships, giving them access to the Canadian fur trade. New France: French colony in North America, with a capitol in Quebec, founded in 1608. It fell to the British in 1760. Coureurs de bois: Runners of the woods; French fur traders, many of mixed Indian descent, who lived among and often married Indians in North America. Tupac Amaru II: member of the Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was executed along with his wife and other family members. George Washington: led the Patriot Army in the Revolutionary War against England; Virginia planter who fought in the French and Indian War. Joseph Brant: Loyalist Mohawk leader who organized Britain?s most potent fighting force along the Canadian border. Eventually joined the Loyalist exodus to Canada. Constitutional Convention: May 1787; accomplished a second, non violent American revolution by abolishing the articles of confederation and making a strong national constitution. Enlightenment: era energized by the belief that human reason could discover the laws that governed social behavior and that those laws were just as scientific as those that governed physics. Benjamin Franklin: writer and inventor who came to symbolize both the natural genius and vast potential of America. Author of Poor Richard?s Almanac and was instrumental in creating the organizations that would become the University of Pennsylvania, the American Philosophical Society, and the Philadelphia Free Library. Estates General: the French national legislature, called by Louis XVI, that had not previously met since 1614. National Assembly: what the expanded Third Estate declared itself; they planned to force the nobility into a constitutional monarchy. Storming of the Bastille: July 14th, 1789. Declaration of the Rights of Man: passed by the National Assembly, this declaration was similar in language to the American Declaration of Independence. Guaranteed free expression of ideas, equality before the law, and representative government. Jacobins: group from which the National Assembly got almost all of its members. Jacobins were the most uncompromising Democrats. Moderate Jacobins were Girondists, and radicals were known as The Mountain. Robespierre: lawyer who came to dominate the Mountain, who was influenced by Rousseau?s ideas. Napoleon Bonaparte: brilliant young General, who seized power in France and conquered or had influence over most of Europe. Eventually defeated, exiled, then escaped and seized power again before he was finally deposed after being defeated at Waterloo. Francois Dominique Toussaint L?Ouverture: former domestic slave and leader of the Haitian revolution, he freed slaves in Haiti and invaded the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo and freed the slaves there using his disciplined military force. Congress of Vienna: meeting of Austria, Britain, Russia, and Prussia (along with reps from other nations) to restore the balance of power in Europe. Revolutions of 1848: democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The revolution was successful in France, where they overthrew the monarchy, but failed in Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary. Industrial Revolution: transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occurring first in England in the Eighteenth century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, and innovations in transportation and communication. Agricultural Revolution: transformation of farming that resulted in new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and the consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants and share croppers were forcibly expelled. Mass production: manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks. Josiah Wedgwood: English industrialist whose pottery works was the first to produce fine quality material by industrial methods. Division of Labor: breaking down a large manufacturing project into smaller repetitive steps. Mechanization: application of machinery to manufacturing. Among the first processes to be mechanized were the spinning of cotton thread and the weaving of cloth in early industrial England. Richard Arkwright: English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that could spin many strong cotton threads at once with limited human supervision. Crystal Palace: building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, it was a symbol of the industrial age. Steam engine: machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion, later applied to moving machinery in factories and to powering ships and locomotives. James Watt: Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation. The watt is named after him. Electric Telegraph: a device for rapid, long-distance transmission of information over an electric wire. Introduced in England and North America in the mid 1800?s. Business Cycles: recurrent swings from economic hard times to recovery and growth, then back to hard times and a repetition of the cycle. Laissez faire: ?hands off,? the idea that governments should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. Mercantilism: European govt policies of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulating precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their mother country. Positivism: philosophy developed by the French count of Saint- Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Utopian socialism: philosophy introduced by Fourier in the early 19th century. Utopian socialists hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively. Simon Bolivar: most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla: Jose Maria Morelos: Mexican priest and former student of Hidalgo and Castillo, he led the forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was captured and executed in 1815. Confederation of 1867: Personalist leaders: Andrew Jackson: Jose Antonio Paez: Benito Juarez: Tecumseh: Caste War: Abolitionists: Acculturation: Women?s Rights Convention: Development: Underdevelopment: Muhammad Ali: Janissaries: Serbia: Tanzimat: Crimean War: Extraterritoriality: Young Ottomans:
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