Kin 345 Motor and Developmental learning 8.27.08 Motor behavior- research area that investigates principles of human movement. Motor control- the study of the neurophysiological factors that affect human movement Motor Learning -the study of processes involved in acquiring and perfecting motor skills Motor Development- The study of the changes in human motor behavior over the lifespan, the processes that underlie these changes, and the factors that affect them . AND The study of the changes in motor behavior which reflect the interaction of the maturation and environment (nature vs nurture) How do we make movements? Simple movements like locomotion take years to learn, cognitively and physically. For optimal learning, how should we practice? Importance of Studying motor development- learn to develop appropriate curriculum, challenging people without discouraging. Know if there is neurological damage. Helping perfect of improve movement performance. What professionals would benefit for this info? TERMS Qualitative- technique changes Sequential- orderly appearance of certain motor patterns, i.e., reach before grasp, stand before run Cumulative- new behaviors built on previous ones Directional- progressive or regressive, ultimate goal Cephalocaudal ? maturation proceeds head to ?tail? Proximodistal ? maturation proceeds from points closest to the body?s center to the periphery Multifactorial- motor, intellectual, social, emotional Individual- individual differences Lifespan approach Growth- quantitative, structural Maturation- qualitative, functional Holding on to a ball and handing to another, gross or fine movement? Fine Running, gross or fine? gross Walking, gross Picking nose, fine Product approach focuses on end result, quantitative Process approach focuses on movement itself, qualitative Stages of Motor Development Phases, periods, transitions across the lifespan What is controversy with respect to stages? Continuous? Or Discontinuous? History of Motor Development 1787 ? 1928 Precursor ? interested in the mind 1928 ? 1946 Maturational ? biological, - norm-referenced scales 1946 ? 1970 Normative/Descriptive ? Physical Education 1970 ? present Process-oriented Information processing Dynamical systems Research Designs Cross-sectional Technique used to imply development by studying groups of varying ages at one time ex. Taking 5, 11, 33 year olds and comparing running patterns Longitudinal Technique in which the same individual is observed performing the same task over a long period of time to determine developmental change Sequential (Cohort) Technique combining longitudinal and cross-sectional observations Some subjects are observed over the full length of the study whereas others are monitored part of the time or just once Take Home Question: What are the Pros & Cons of each Research Design? Cross-sectional Longitudinal Sequential-Cohort 9.3.08 Reflexes Not a conscious movement Occurs below level of higher brain centers (sub cortical) Most infant reflexes disappear after 1st year Ex of reflexes in adults? Touching hot surface, patellar reflex(stretch reflex), blinking when something close to eye Infant reflexes? Palmar grasp Importance of reflexes Protect us from injury: flexor withdrawal Critical for human survival: nourishment, protection Foundation for future voluntary movements: postural Important for diagnosis of infant health and neurological maturation. Types of reflexes Lifespan reflexes Primitive reflexes, reflexes used for protection, nutrition and survival Present in all normal newborns from birth to 6 mos. Postural Primitive reflexes Palmar grasp One of most noticeable Through 4th month Leads to voluntary reaching and grasping Sucking reflex Occurs pre-postnatally Stimulated by touching the lips Search reflex Helps the baby locate nourishment Baby turns head toward the food Contributes to head and body righting reflexes Moro reflex Same stimuli as startle reflex Precedes startle reflex and causes arms and legs to extend immediately rather than flex Disappears 4-6 mos. Startle reflex Similar to moro reflex May not appear til 2-3 mos. after moro disappears Elicited by a rapid change of head position or by striking the surface that supports the baby Causes arms and legs to flex immediately Asymmetric Tonic Neck Reflex Causes flexion on one side and extension on the other Not always seen in newborn Plantar grasp reflex Toes appear to grasp Stimulus is touching ball of foot Disappear after baby can stand or walk Babinski reflex Stimulus similar to plantar grasp, but response is diff Palmar mandibular reflex Eyes close mouth opens and head tilts forward Stimulus is pressure to both palms Palmar mental reflex Facial response when base of palm is scratched Lower jaw opens and closes Postural Reflexes Basis for future movement Initiated by higher brain centers Crawling reflex Essential to voluntary creeping Observed 3-4 mos. after birth Swimming reflex Swimming-like movements when held in a horizontal position Head-and-body righting reflex Head ?rights? itself with the body when the body is turned to one side Precursor to rolling movements Body righting may not be evident before month 5 Parachuting reflex Propping Related to upright posture Appears to be an attempt to break a fall Labyrinthine reflex Endures throughout most of first year Related to upright posture Head tilts in opposite direction of body tilt Pull-up reflex Arms flex and extend in an effort to support upright position 9.8.8 Maturation differs from growth in what ways? Growth is physical, maturation is qualitative Assessing students? progress in order to determine the effectiveness of teaching methods is an example of what? What are the 3 different types of reflexes? Lifespan postural primitive What are stereotypies? Repetition of meaningless movements Fine Motor Control Small muscles, usually hands and fingers like grasping and reaching Gross Motor Control Large muscles, movements that move body in space, ex locomotion jumping Manipulation Skillful use of hands, ex typing shoes, writing Intrinsic Movements Coordination of the fingers with an object already in hand ex brushing teeth, eating, writing Extrinsic Movements Move the hand and object using upper limb ex throwing, golfing Hand movements Simple Synergy Action of all fingers and thumb are similar, ex clapping, squeezing ball Reciprocal synergy Combination of finger and thumb movements. Reciprocal and simultaneously interacting to produce different movements ex writing typing Sequential patterns Sequence of hand patterns ex sign language Haptic Perception( info from cutaneous receptors and propriocepters) Acquiring info about an object with hand, ex brail, feelings, texture Exploratory Procedures Use of hands enables child to gain info, particularly haptic, about their environment (enlarge) Exploratory Procedures Any restriction of the hand movements, inhibits child?s ability to learn about an object, ex: hot, sharp objects Categorizing Reaching Phase I Reaching 4-6 months Reach and grasp occur at the same time Random and repeated grasping One handed reach Visually initiated Not capable of correction error during the reach Use vision to guide grasping Phase II Reaching 6-7 months Reach?then grasp Can demonstrate two handed reach Visually guided reaching Use tactile sensation to guide grasping However.. Method Reach in the dark to glowing objects Reach in the dark to sounding object Reach in the dark to object that sounded and glowed Reach in light Results Reach and grasp at similar times whether see hands or not What does this tell us Vision not necessary in reaching, therefore, greater emphasis should be on proprioception Another categorization of reaching Backhand sweeping toward object Does not get object Sweeping or scooping approach Indirect, circuitous Controlled Reach Prehension Act of reaching grasping, releasing Develops between 1-13 mos. Involves 4 steps 1 object is visually located 2 object is reached 3 object is grasped 4 object is released Releasing 9 months drop object Must relax muscles in arm 18 mos accurate release Related to ability to anticipate weight of an object and regulate force Bimanual control Movement of the 2 arms toward an object Depends on size, weight, and shape of object Bimanual coordination Complementary 8 mos. manipulate object cooperatively with both hands Symmetrical 2 mos. extend and raise arms above head ( Object-control Skills Throwing Unimanual Underarm Sidearm Overarm Bimanual Overarm Underarm Boys more advanced in throwing Girls slightly ahead on catching 9.10.2008 What characterizes fine & gross motor control? Difference between intrinsic and extrinsic movements? Example of a sequential pattern? Chronological development of voluntary movements in infancy Start at 1 mos. with slight move of eyes and head Start control of neck muscles for head 1-5 mos Sit w/o support 8 mos Creeping/ crawling 7-9 mos Control of upright body posture 9 mos Upright locomotion 10-11 mos Development of locomotion Prewalking Requires hands, slow Why so hard for infants to walk? Why do infants want to walk? To explore
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