The most lateral of the three muscles of the Erector Spinae Group is the:
When asking your partner to "extend the spine" or raise your right slightly, the muscle group that can be palpated from the sacrum up to the cervical region is the:
Erector spinae group
The muscle group that is deep to the erectors in the low back area that is responsible for lateral pelvic rotation to the contralateral side.
The muscle that is partially deep to the trapezius whose action is to "rotate your head" to the same side being palpated.
The group of muscles deep to the erectors, alongside the spine, extending from spinous process to tranverse process which extend and rotate your spine.
The abdominal muscle which is most superficial and produces only flexion of the vertebral column.
The deepest of the abdominal muscles used to set the core and assist in forced exhalation.
When asking your partner to raise their shoulder toward the right hip (rotate the trunk) which muscle would you be palpating on the left side of the abdomen and lower ribs?
When palpating lateral to the edge of the rectus abdominis the fibers of which muscle are perpendicular to the internal oblique.
WHich muscle of the lumbar region is located between the twelfth rib and posterior iliac crest bony landmarks?
The insertion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle is onto the:
A unilateral concentric contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle produces:
rotation of the head to the opposite side
Which of the abdominal muscles is the so called core muscle?
WHich structures of a vertebra create what many consider to be the most sensitive joint in the body?
What is the function of the Intervertebral Disk?
-Cushion the vertebrae/absorb force
-Allow a small degree of movement
What muscle is the primary ankle dorsi flexor?
Most acute compartment syndrome cases involve the muscles in the:
Which actions occur at the ankle joint?
Superior support for the longitudinal arch comes from the:
Muscles in this compartment can possibly prevent inversion ankle sprains
This action occurs within the longitudinal arch to assist in the absorption of force.
When a person jumps up in the air the ankle naturally plantar flexes and the subtalar transverse tarsal joint...
Primary action produced by a contraction in the soleus
Primary actions produced by a contraction in the peronius tertius
Plantar flexion and eversion
Primary actions produced by a contraction in the tibialis anterior
Dorsi flexion and Inversion
Which muscles are Anterior compartment muscles?
-Extensor Digitorum Longus
-Extensor Hallucis Longus
Which muscles are Deep Posterior Compartment muscles?
-Flexor Digitorum Longus
-Flexor Hallucis Longus
Which muscles are the Superficial Posterior Compartment muscles?
Which muscles are Lateral Compartment Muscles
Identify the muscles that provide lateral support to the ankle thus preventing ankle inversion.
Lateral compartment: Fibularis longus and brevis
When the knee is in a flexed position which muscle becomes the primary plantar flexor of the ankle?
What are the functions of the longitudinal arch?
Shin splints can be prevented. List the muscles that are involved in this condition.
(Deep posterior compartment)
-Flexor digitorum longus
-Flexor hallucis longus
Which muscle is the primary plantar flexor?
When the Gastrocnemius is shortened, which muscle becomes the primary plantar flexor? In what position does it best produce this action?
-Knee bent position
Pronation/Supination and arches
Pronation- unlocking of the arch (helps absorb force)
Supination- locking of the arch
Describe how uncontrolled pronation of the foot effects knee and hip motions.
Uncontrolled pronation does not absorb force as effectively, so the force is absorbed by the knees/hips
Motion/Pronation and Supination of foot
Heel off- supination
Toe off- pronation
How do the compartments act concentrically?
The compartments will concentrically act to bring the foot back into a supinated position
Why is strengthening the peroneus longus and brevis important following an inversion sprain of the ankle?
They control the inversion of the ankle. By strengthening these muscles, they are better able to evert the force and counteract the inverted action.
How would the function of the fibularis muscles be altered if the peroneal retinacula failed to perfrom their function and the peronael tendons were allowed to move forward in front of the malleolus of the fibula?
They would produce dorsal flexion rather than plantar flexion.
Is the double leg raise a contraindicated exercise? Why or why not?
Yes, because it strains the back and requires that the pelvic girdle prevents the action from hurting the lumbar spine.
Evaluate the difference between lifting a box with knees straight versus knees flexed.
Lifting with knees straight puts pressure on the lumbar spine and can cause injury. Lifting with your legs (knees flexed) takes pressure off the lumbar spine.
What pelvic motion would accompany a single leg lift?
What pelvic movement would accompany a curl up?
What pelvic movement would accompany a back bend?
Anterior pelvic rotation
What pelvic movement would accompany a double leg raise?
Posterior pelvic rotation
What's the role of the medialis?
Proper movement of the patella/knee extension
Is just unlocking an affective way to absorb force?
No, you need eccentric muscle action to effectively absorb force.
Which muscle is the primary shin splint muscle?
The Tibialis Anterior which attaches to part of the interosseous membrane
The Trendelenburg gait occurs as a result of weakness of the Gluteus Minimus and:
The three muscles that will make up the Pes Anserine have a common area of insertion:
Anterior medial condyle of the Tibia
True of False, the Gluteus Maximus is a primary hip abductor muscle:
The Sartorius muscle produces all of the following actions except:
Gluteus minimus action:
Biceps femoris action:
Three muscles that produce hip abduction
Tensor Faschia Latae
Two actions of the iliopsoas muscle
Flexion of the hip
External rotation of the femur
Name four of the muscles which produce hip extension
Name in order from proximal to distal insertions the five muscles which produce hip adduction:
Which hip joint muscle becomes a primary hip extensor when the knee joint is positioned in flexion?
What is a common action of the Pes Anserine muscle group?
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