- 由于 is the formal version of 因为. usually comes at beginning of the sentence
- 以至于 can literally be translated as 'as a result' 'in consequence' --> but really often has no explicit correlate in English translation
- usually expresses an undesirable consequence
- 由于人数不关心环境污染的问题，以至于今年来地球暖化的问题非常严重。because mankind doesn't care about the problems of environmental pollution, the problem of global warming has become very serious in recent years.
- 由于父母每天忙着工作赚钱，以至于没有时间和孩子多交流。Because parents are always busy working and making money, they don't have time to socialize with their children.
have a (major/pos/neg) influence on ...
influence ... (in a major/pos/neg way)
- 产生 translates to 'produce, engender, give rise to', but in many cases can mean simply 'have' .
- In a more colluqial style, could be replaced by 有 （对。。有影响）
The former peasants were conservative and the peasants now started more. Instead of being comfortable with the status quo, they actively and bravely faced challenges and changed the status quo.
怕-pa-n/v - fear，be afraid
This grammar pattern takes two things and makes a comparison. The second clause of the sentence (which includes the 则) describes another thing with a contrasting characteristic. In this instance, 则 has the same meaning as 却.
not only A, but also B; both A and B; on the one hand A and on the other hand B
- more explicit formal version of A 又 B
- both A & B can be adjectival (SVs).. in which they tend to be both pos or both neg (in an 'and' relationship)
- A&B can be verbal, but it is a "but" relationship between the two (adversative). ex: 我既想学中文，又不想多花时间。I want to learn Chinese, but I don't want to spend time doing it.