Chromatin in the nucleus condense and form visible chromosomes. Nucleolus disappears.
Chromosomes are attached together by centromeres. Each half called a chromatid
Centrisomes start to move to opposite sides of the cell
Spindles fibers span across the cell from the centrisomes
Chromosomes line up on the equator of the cell
Sister chromosomes are pulled apart to the opposite poles
Cleavage furrow develops to separate the new daughter cells
Explain the importance of having cell cycle checkpoints
Provide time for DNA repair and DNA editing to help prevent cancer.
Define what is meant by differentiation, and what this means in terms of gene expression
After cells go through mitosis, the new daughter cells become more specialized in certain functions even though they came from the same place.
Even though the cell actions are different they contain the exact same DNA.
Define apoptosis and give on example
It is cell suicide of unnecessary cells
Ex: The webs of skin between the fingers and toes during fetal development
Understand the structure-function relationship between different types of epithelial cells
squamous -- diffusion and filtration
cuboidal --- can make, release, and process but can't store
columnar -- can make, process, and store
Simple squamous epithelium
Found in alveoli of the lung
used for diffusion and filtration
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Found covering the surface of female ovaries, lining the capsule of the lens of the eye, and forming the tubule in the kidneys where it is involved in the reabsorption of water
Secretion and production of proteins
Simple columnar epithelium
Found in stomach and small intestine
Have tiny projections called microvili as well as goblet cells
Make, store, and process things
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Found in upper respiratory tract
Cilia help move things along
Found in upper layer of the skin
Found in the urinary bladder
Allows tissue to stretch
List the five important physiological functions of the skin
Synthesis of vitamin D
Describe the structure of the skin, including a list of its layers
Dermis is comprised of:
List 3 accessory structures of the skin
What is keratinization? To what group of chemical substances does keratin belong?
Keratinization are the new cells that are being formed in the basale layer of the skin are being pushed up to the surface of the skin and then dying and become pack with tough, fibrous, waterproof protein called keratin.
Describe the 3 types of glands associated with the skin
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