What part of either microscope to you look through?
What should you carry the microscope by?
Arm and base
Where do you place the slide?
On the Stage
What is the revolving nose piece?
The piece on the compound that as the objective lenses attached to it and can be turned for different powers.
What are the objective lenses?
Lenses on the compound which have varying powers of magnification.
What part of the compound focuses the light on the specimen?
What part of the compound controls the amount of light reaching the object being observed?
What knob adjusts the distance between the stage and the objective to bring the specimen into APPROXIMATE focus?
Coarse Adjustment Knob
What knob adjusts the distance between the stage and the objective to bring the specimen into FINE focus?
Find adjustment knob
What illuminates the specimen being viewed?
What is the basic difference between the compound and stereoscopic microscopes?
Compound is for very small specimens and the stereoscopic is for objects in three dimensions.
After placing a newspaper clipping on a wet mount slide, what must be done next?
Place a drop of water (known as suspension) on the slide.
What water (or suspension) in placed on the wet mount slide, what do you do next?
Gently place a coverslip's edge at the edge of the suspension and gently lower it onto the slide, spreading the suspension evenly under it.
How is total magnification calculated?
By multiplying the ocular lens by the power of the objective lens.
What is resolution?
the ability to distinguish two points as being separate
Under the COMPOUND microscope, describe the movement of the specimen when moved left, right, up, or down. Is it right side up or upside down?
When moved left, it moves right, when moved up, it moves down, etc. It is upside down
Under the STEREOSCOPIC microscope, describe the movement of the specimen when moved left, right, up, or down. Is it right side up or upside down?
When moved left, it moves left, when moved up it moves up, etc. It is right side up.
A slide is about 8 cells across. Magnification of the cells is 100x. The FOV is 5mm across on 40x magnification. Calculate size of each cell in um.
Multiply your mm by 1000 to get micrometers = 5000
Set up your formula: FOV low X Mag low = FOV high X Mag high. Plug in numbers to get: 5000 X 40 = FOV high X 100 Do the math. 200,000 = 100FOV high. So 2000 = FOV high. Divide by # of cells = 250um
Cell size formula
Diameter of FOV divided by number of cells
What is depth of field?
The vertical distance that remains in focus at one time.
What happens to the field of view when the magnification increases?
It becomes smaller
What are the correct steps to store a microscope after use?
turn off light
clean the lenses and stage
rotate the nose piece to the low power objective
unplug and wrap cord around base
put on dust cover
put in the correct cubicle
What is part of the Axial Skeleton?
The skull, ossicles of the ear, vertebral column, ribs and sternum.
What is part of the Appendicular Skeleton?
Arms, legs, pectoral and pelvic girdles.
Where is compact bone found on a long bone?
The hard outer part of the bone.
Where is cancellous or spongy bone found?
Inside the ends of the long bone?
Where is the medullary cavity?
Inside the shaft of the long bone.
Where is yellow marrow found?
inside the medullary cavity.
Where is the red marrow found?
in the cancellous or spongy bone
What is the function of yellow marrow?
What is the function of red marrow?
production of red and white blood cells and platelets.
Where is the humerus?
The bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow.
Where is the femur?
The bone extending from the hip to the knee
Where is the tibia?
The main bone extending from the knee to the ankle.
Penny: You will take the "Outside" measurement for the outside of the penny. You will read the measurement at the 0 on the top scale. Jar: You will take the "Inside" measurement for the inside of the jar. You will read at the 0 on the bottom scale.
What is the difference between metric and non metric characteristics?
Metric characteristics are measurable with tools. Non metric characteristics are not measured--they typically describe something based on approximate shape.
Study these parts of the diagram:
greater sciatic notch (in yellow) sacrum
**Notice this is the posterior view (from behind)
Study these parts of the diagram: Ischium
Greater Sciatic Notch
Male on left, Female on right
What are some of the non metric characteristics of the female vs male pelvis?
Female pelvic opening is more circular with only the coccyx showing. The male pelvis is more heart-shaped with both the sacrum and coccyx showing.
How do you convert cm to in?
Divide by 2.54
If you have someone who is 66 inches tall, how many feet & inches is that?
It is 5.5 feet which equals 5 feet and 6 inches. Remember to convert to the closest inch because there are 12 inches per foot, not 10.
What are two functions of the skeletal system?
Support of the body
Movement of the body by providing muscle attachment sites.
Cardiac. It is striated and has intercalated discs.
Skeletal. It is striated and multi-nucleated.
Smooth. It is non-striated and has one nucleus per cell.
What is the M line?
It is the center line of the sarcomere. (Can remember as middle line)
What is the H zone?
The region where there are only myocin is present. It extends on either side of the M line but ends before the overlap of actin filaments.
What is the A band?
All regions which contain the thick myocin filaments. It does overlap actin filaments.
What is the I band?
The region where there are only actin is present.
What is the Z line?
The borders of the sarcomere on either side of it.
Which filament is thick and in the middle?
Which filament is thin and on either side?
How does fatigue and temperature effect muscle function?
Both cold temperatures and fatigue slow down the rate at which the muscles can contract.
What is the difference between a flexor and an extensor?
A flexor contracts to DECREASE the angle between two bones. An extensor contracts to INCREASE the angle between two bones.
What is an antagonistic muscle pair?
A flexor and an extensor
What is a strain?
A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon
What is a sprain?
an injury to a ligament
What is the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscles?
You choose when to move voluntary muscles (skeletal). Involuntary muscles move without your consent (smooth & cardiac)
What is a cramp?
an involuntary, painful contraction of muscles which produces a hard, bulging muscle.
What structure attaches muscles to the skeleton?
What is the contractile unit of a muscle cell called?
What is the term for the bundle of units that make up muscle fibers?
What is the type of energy that is necessary for myosin/actin interaction?
What structures allow for muscle contraction to spread through the heart muscle?
What stimulates muscle contraction for each type of muscle?
Skeletal: Motor Neurons
Cardiac: Ion Channels
Smooth: Nervous system through hormones
What would a typical graph look like that measured the repetitions of a muscular activity over a span of time?
It would go down over time
Cat (it looks a lot like human blood--it is non nucleated and it might be concave??)
Horseshoe crab. (It is blue when oxygenated)
Trypanosoma causes what? How is it spread?
African Sleeping Sickness. Insect Bites.
Plasmodium causes what?
Malaria. Insect Bites.
What is Trypanosoma?
An elongated, vaguely corkscrew shaped cell that funcations as in EXTRACELLULAR parasite.
What is Plasmodium?
A round, purple staining organism that functions as an INTRACELLULAR parasite.
Blood type A has what on its surface?
Blood type B has what on its surface?
Blood type AB has what on its surface?
A and B antigens
Blood type O has what on its surface?
If you want to understand blood typing what should you do?
Play the blood typing game and don't kill the people!