lab exercise 29- blood
Last Modified: 2016-03-08
makes up 55% of whole blood
make up 45% of whole blood
are the sacks of hemoglobin molecules that transport the bulk of oxygen carried in the blood.
are part of the body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system
vary in color from salmon red to a pale pink when stained
biconcave disc shape and appear paler in the center than at the edges
average 4.5-5.5 *10^6 cells/cm3
are anucleate when mature
life span of 100-120 days.
average 4800-10800 cells/cm3.
they protect the body from invaders in all parts of the body.
can move in or out of the blood vessels.
two major groups: granulocytes and agranulocytes
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
nucleus consists of 3-6 lobes and the pale lilac cytoplasm contains fine cytoplasmic granules, which are generally indistinguishable and take up both the acidic and basic dyes.
functions as an active phagocyte.
numbers increase when have an acute infection
nucleus is generally figure-8 or bilobed in shape
has large cytoplasmic granules that stain red-orange with acid dyes.
Are about the size of neutrophils and play a role in counterattacking parasitic worms.
Have complex roles in many other diseases; especially with allergies and asthma
Large U or S-shaped nucleus with two or more indentations.
cytoplasm contains coarse, sparse granules that are stained deep purple by basic dyes.
granules contain several chemicals, including histamine, a vasodilator that is released on contact with antigens and helps mediate the inflammatory response.
found in the blood stream, but they are more abundant in lymphoid tissues.
Their nuclei tend to be closes to the norm
two types: lymphocytes and monocytes
nucleus stains dark blue to purple, is generally spherical or slightly indented and account for most of the cell mass
cytoplasm is sparse and blue rim around nucleus
deals with immunologic response in the body.
composed of : B cells, T cells and NK cells
make up 25% or more of the WBC population
represent 3%-8% of leukocytes
dark blue nucleus is generally kidney shaped with the abundant cytoplasm staining gray-blue
once they are in the tissues they convert to macrophages, which are active phagocytes and they increase dramatically with chronic infection
appear darkly staining, irregularly shaped bodies interspersed among the blood cells
average is 150,000-400,000 per mm3
are instrumental in the clotting process that occurs in plasma when blood vessels are ruptured
abnormalities in their numbers has many indications about disease in the body.
may indicate typhoid fever, measles, infectious hepatitis, or cirrhosis, Tb, or excessive antibiotic or x-ray therapy.
simply indicates a decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood that may result from a decrease in RBC number or size or a decreased hemoglobin content of the RBCs.
could result from suddenly from hemorrhage or more gradually from conditions that destroy RBCs or hinder RBC production
is routinely used to diagnose illness, since any abnormality or significant elevation in percentages of WBC types may indicate a problem or the source of pathology
used when anemia is suspected
centrifuging whole blood spins the formed elemetns to the bottom of the tube with plasma forming the top layer. Since the blood cell population is primarily RBCs, the PCV is generally considered equivalent to the RBC volume and this is the only value reported.
normal values: M: 47.0% and F: 42.0%
average Male: 13-18g Female: 12-16g/100mL
relationship of the is generally, PCV:hemoglobin contentration is 3:1.
it tests the ability of platelets to stop bleeding in capillaries and small vessels. Absence of some blotting factors may affect bleeding time, but prolonged bleeding time is most often associated with deficient or abnormal platelets
is a protective mechanism that minimizes blood loss when blood vessels are ruptures.
test this by using capillary tube that you break at 30 second intervals until the blood sticks together when the tube is broken.
antibodies react to the antigens that are not supposed to be there and has them killed.
ABO and Rh blood groups are the most common typings
mg/100mL of plasma.
LDLs don't get degraded by the liver and when the levels are high the cholesterol is deposited in the blood vessel walls which can lead to blockages.
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