the living cells in the blood. it excludes the plasma, which is cell fragments
composition and function of plasma
90% is water and the rest includes, nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes, electrolyte, proteins, etc. it makes up a good portion of the blood volume makes up 55% of whole blood
three types of formed elements in blood
erythrocytes leukocytes platelets make up 45% of whole blood
aka red blood cells (RBC) are the sacks of hemoglobin molecules that transport the bulk of oxygen carried in the blood.
aka White Blood Cells (WBC) are part of the body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system
function in hemostasis (blood clot formation).
average 7.5 um in diameter vary in color from salmon red to a pale pink when stained biconcave disc shape and appear paler in the center than at the edges average 4.5-5.5 *10^6 cells/cm3 are anucleate when mature life span of 100-120 days.
are nucleated and formed in the bone marrow from the same stem cells as RBCs. average 4800-10800 cells/cm3. they protect the body from invaders in all parts of the body. can move in or out of the blood vessels. two major groups: granulocytes and agranulocytes
the ability of the WBCs to move in or out of the blood vessels by squeezing through the pores in the vessels. Once out the WBCs move by amoeboid motion to reach sites of inflammation.
have granules in their cytoplasm. and have peculiarly lobed nuclei neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
most abundant of the WBCs (50-70%) nucleus consists of 3-6 lobes and the pale lilac cytoplasm contains fine cytoplasmic granules, which are generally indistinguishable and take up both the acidic and basic dyes. functions as an active phagocyte. numbers increase when have an acute infection
about 2-4% of the leukocytes. nucleus is generally figure-8 or bilobed in shape has large cytoplasmic granules that stain red-orange with acid dyes. Are about the size of neutrophils and play a role in counterattacking parasitic worms. Have complex roles in many other diseases; especially with allergies and asthma
least abundant leukocyte type (less than 1%) Large U or S-shaped nucleus with two or more indentations. cytoplasm contains coarse, sparse granules that are stained deep purple by basic dyes. granules contain several chemicals, including histamine, a vasodilator that is released on contact with antigens and helps mediate the inflammatory response.
contain no visible cytoplasmic granules found in the blood stream, but they are more abundant in lymphoid tissues. Their nuclei tend to be closes to the norm two types: lymphocytes and monocytes
smallest of the leukocytes, about the size of a RBC nucleus stains dark blue to purple, is generally spherical or slightly indented and account for most of the cell mass cytoplasm is sparse and blue rim around nucleus deals with immunologic response in the body. composed of : B cells, T cells and NK cells make up 25% or more of the WBC population
give rise to plasma cells that produce antibodies released to the blood.
play a regulatory role and destroys grafts, tumors, and virus-infected cells
largest of the leukocytes represent 3%-8% of leukocytes dark blue nucleus is generally kidney shaped with the abundant cytoplasm staining gray-blue once they are in the tissues they convert to macrophages, which are active phagocytes and they increase dramatically with chronic infection
are cell fragments of large multinucleate cells formed in the bone marrow appear darkly staining, irregularly shaped bodies interspersed among the blood cells average is 150,000-400,000 per mm3 are instrumental in the clotting process that occurs in plasma when blood vessels are ruptured
Total white or red blood cell count
determines that total number of cells of that type per unit volume of blood and are a routine part of a physical exam abnormalities in their numbers has many indications about disease in the body.
an abnormally high WBC count, may indicate bacterial or viral ingection, metabolic disease, hemorrhage or poisoning by drugs or chemicals.
when WBC count is below 4000/mm3 may indicate typhoid fever, measles, infectious hepatitis, or cirrhosis, Tb, or excessive antibiotic or x-ray therapy.
a malignant disorder of the lymphoid tissues characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal WBCs accompanied by a reduction in the number of RBCs and platelets, is detectable not only by a total WBC count but also by a differential WBC count
an increase in the number of RBCs may result from bone marrow cancer or from living at high altitudes where less oxygen is available.
a decrease in the number of RBCs. simply indicates a decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood that may result from a decrease in RBC number or size or a decreased hemoglobin content of the RBCs. could result from suddenly from hemorrhage or more gradually from conditions that destroy RBCs or hinder RBC production
differential WBC count
done by counting and classifying 100 WBCs. is routinely used to diagnose illness, since any abnormality or significant elevation in percentages of WBC types may indicate a problem or the source of pathology
aka Packed cell volume (PCV) used when anemia is suspected centrifuging whole blood spins the formed elemetns to the bottom of the tube with plasma forming the top layer. Since the blood cell population is primarily RBCs, the PCV is generally considered equivalent to the RBC volume and this is the only value reported. normal values: M: 47.0% and F: 42.0%
these days they use a hemogobinometer to determine the hemoglobin concentration in the blood. average Male: 13-18g Female: 12-16g/100mL relationship of the is generally, PCV:hemoglobin contentration is 3:1.
normal bleeding time is 2-7 minutes (Ivy method) or 0-5 minutes (Duke method). it tests the ability of platelets to stop bleeding in capillaries and small vessels. Absence of some blotting factors may affect bleeding time, but prolonged bleeding time is most often associated with deficient or abnormal platelets
aka coagulation is a protective mechanism that minimizes blood loss when blood vessels are ruptures. test this by using capillary tube that you break at 30 second intervals until the blood sticks together when the tube is broken.
injured tissues and platelets release tissue factor (TF) and PF3 respectively, which trigger the clotting mechanism. TF and PF3 interact with other blood protein clotting factors and Calcium ions to form prothrombin activator-> prothrombin-> thrombin. Thrombin acts enzymatically to polymerize the soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin, which forms the basis of the clot.
based on the antigens on the outside of the RBCs. genetically determined antibodies react to the antigens that are not supposed to be there and has them killed. ABO and Rh blood groups are the most common typings
plasma cholesterol concentration
normal value for adults is 130-200 mg/100mL of plasma. LDLs don't get degraded by the liver and when the levels are high the cholesterol is deposited in the blood vessel walls which can lead to blockages.
Want to see the other 34 Flashcards in lab exercise 29- blood?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!