is equivalent to one complete heartbeat- during which both atria and ventricles contract and then relax.
brief rise in aortic pressure caused by backflow of blood rebounding off of semilunar valves
normal length of the cardiac cycle
average bpm is 75 and so the length of the cardiac cycle is 0.8 second. of this time atrial contraction takes 0.1 second, followed by atria relaxation and ventricular contraction, which is 0.3 second. lastly, it takes 0.4 second for the ventricles to relax. when the heart rate increases, the last variable is the one that will shorten.
lub the first heart sound and is associated with the closure of the AV valves at the beginning of the ventricular systole
dup the second heart sound occurs as the semilunar valves close and corresponds with the end of systole.
abnormal heart sounds. they often indicate valvular problems. in valves that do not close tightly, closure is followed by a swishing sound due to the backflow of blood. if high pitched sounds, then indicates stenosus.
auscultation of the mitral valve
sounds are heard over the apex of the heart, in the 5th intercostal space in line with the middle of the clavicle
auscultation of the tricuspid valve
sound are typically heard in right sternal margin of the 5th intercostal space; variations include over sternum or over left sternal margin in 5ht intercostal space.
auscultation of the aortic valve
sounds heard in the 2nd intercostal space at right sternal margin
auscultation of the pulmonary valve
sound are heard in 2nd intercostal space at left sternal margin.
refers to the alternating surges of pressure in an artery that occur with each contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle.
difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. if less than 30 mmHg then might mean that there is aortic stenosis, constrictive pericarditis or tachycardia. while over 40 mmHg is common in hypertensive individuals
pressure surges per minute
superficial temporal artery pulse
anterior to the ear, in the temple region
facial artery pulse
clench the teeth and palpate the pulse just anterior to the masseter muscle on the mandible (in line with the corner of the mouth)
common carotid artery pulse
at the side of the neck
brachial artery pulse
in the antecubital fossa, at the point where it bifurcates into the radial and ulnar arteries
radial artery pulse
at the lateral aspect of the wrist, above the thumb
femoral artery pulse
in the groin
popliteal artery pulse
at the back of the knee
posterior tibial artery pulse
just above the medial malleolus
dorsalis pedis artery pulse
on the dorsum of the foot
the apical pulse may be slightly faster than the radial because of a slight lag in time as the blood rushes from the heart into the large arteries where it can be palpated.
large differences in the apical-radial pulse rates and may indicate cardiac impairment, low cardiac output, or abnormal heart rhythms.
defined as the pressure the blood exerts against any unit are of the blood vessel walls, and it is generally measured in the arteries. reported in mmHg with systolic pressure appearing first, ie 120/80
which is the pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular ejection
which reflects the pressure during ventricular relaxation
1. first sound of tapping, systolic. 2. swooshing, softer murmurs. 3. knocking, crisp high pitched sounds. 4. abrupt muffling, sound mutes to a blowing. 5. silence, last audible sound diastolic.
blood pressure cuff used to obtain blood pressure readings by the ausculatory method.
blood pressure's relationship to cardiac output
BP= CO x PR
Harvard Step Test
Test for Cardiovascular fitness athlete steps up and down onto a standard gym bench once every two seconds for five minutes(30step/min); measure HR every minute after test for 3min
mean arterial pressure
MAP= diastolic pressure + (pulse pressure/3)
index of physical fitness
(duration of exercise in seconds X 100) / (2 X sum of the three pulse counts in recovery)
cold pressor test
subject submerges hand in 4-deg C water, take BP every minute for 3 and will see that BP and heart increase due to the pain.
stable blood pressure exhibit a rise of diastolic and/or systolic pressure ranging from 0-22 mmHg or a drop in pressures
labile blood pressure exhibit rise of 23 mmHg or more in the diastolic and/or systolic blood pressure
vasodilation and flushing of the skin due to local metabolites
when use BP cuff to cut off blood supply to the arm for a minute and compare what the arm looks like color and vein-wise. And what it looks like when the cuff is released.
effects of venous congestion
this is a test where you inflate the BP cuff to 40 mmHg and see how the fingers look after 5 minutes. Mimics venous congestion, which leads to the extremeties being blue because of the blood pooling there.
collateral blood flow
a given body area is supplied by both one main artery, and by anastomosing channels connecting the main artery with one or more neighboring blood vessels
effects of mechanical stimulation of blood vessels of the skin
when apply moderate pressure to the hand as run a pen across it. the redness observed after mechanical stimulation results from a local inflammatory response promoted by chemical mediators released by injured tissues. these mediators stimulate increased blood flow into the area and leaking of fluid into the local tissues.
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