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(deoxyribose nucleic acid)
molecule that contains the genetic information that determines inherited characteristics
a cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells; consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins
the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets in two separate nuclei
protein with a nucleic acid prosthetic group
The paired strands of a recently replicated chromosome, which are connected at the centromere and eventually separate during anaphase of mitosis and meiosis II.
structure in a chromosome which keeps replicated chromatids together which spindle fibers attach
A structure made of proteins that have assembled on specific section of DNA at each centromere. Faces opposite directions.(motor protein)
The DNA in chromatin is tightly coiled around proteins called _____
A photograph of pairs of homologous chromosomes in a cell
Referring to a gene located on any non-sex chromosome. (an autosome) or a trait determined by an ______ gene.
tissues at the tip of a stem capable of cell division gives rise to stem elongation
The G1, S, and G2 phases of the cell cycle. It is the portion of the cell cycle during which the chromosomes are decondensed and found in the nucleus. (longest phase of Mitosis/Meiosis)
Chromatin condenses and duplicated chromosomes become visibleOutside the nucleus, microtubules assemble into spindle fibers.(called spindle)Nuclear envelope breaks down & disappears; nucleoli disappear
sister chromatids line up along the mid point of the cell called spindle equatorSpindle fibers are attached to the sister chromatids at the kinetechores, the outer faces of the centromere. The other end of the spindle leads to the 2 poles at opp. end
Sister chromatids separate at the centromeres. The ends of the arms are the last point to separate.The sister chromatids are now called chromosomes again & move towards the opposite poles of the cell
chromsomes have reached opposite poles of the cellSpindle disorganizes & dissapearsChromosomes uncoil back to chromatin formNuclear envelope reforms around each newly formed daughter nucleusCell plate forms as vesicles from Golgi-body fuse at the spi
begins while cell is still in TelophaseCell plate will div the cytoplasm and develop into the new cell wall & plasma membrane for each of the smaller daughter cellsNucleoli reappear in each new daughter cell
the cell grows larger
the cell replicates DNA
the cell prepares to divide
an organelle that comes in a pair; made up of microtubules just like the cytoskeleton is and they are always perpendicular to each other.
A pinching in of the plasma membrane that occurs as cytokinesis begins in animal cells and deepens until the cytoplasm is divided into two daughter cells.
is created in the middle of the cell with the help of golgi apparatus, it eventually turns into a cell wall to create two daughter cells.(plant cells)
Assists separation of chromatids as they move towards opposite sides (poles) of spindle
Fibers that extend from one pole of a cell to the other, pull sister chromatids apart
Process by which cells reduce the number of chromosomes from diploid to haploid through two divisions in order to make gametes. Products are four haploid gametes.
- separates homologous chromosomes
the first division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell
Second division of sex cells(gametes). The cells must go through a second division in order to have the correct number of chromosomes. It is completed with four haploid daughter cells.
A pair of chromosomes (one from each parent) that carry genes controlling the same inherited characteristics
-separate during Meiosis I
(also called homologues)
Cell with two copies of each chromosome (2n)
When only one of each homologous chromosome is present in the nucleus (n) used to refer to a cell that has only a single set of genes
the two copies of a particular type of gene present in a diploid cell (one in each chromosome set).
A haploid sex cell, formed during meiosis, that can combine with another haploid sex cell and produce a diploid fertilized cell.
is an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromsome
Female Haploid daughter cells (gamete)
Product of female meiosis that contains little cytoplasm and does not continue to develop into an oocyte
Male haploid daughter cell (gamete)
A stage in reproduction where an egg and a sperm fuse to create a single cell, called a zygote.
the particular position on a homologous chromosome of a gene
The pairing and physical connection of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis, forming a tetrad. Also called crossing over.
the site of crossing over between homologous chromosomes.
a fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg
genetic component that contributes to traits. (the entire genetic makeup of an organism)
the observable characteristic (trait) of an organism
Process of random segregation and assortment of chromosomes during anaphase (produces genetically unique gametes)
-the exchange of corresponding genes between homologous chromosomes in a tetrad between non sister chromatids
-it increases genetic variation
errors that may occur during Meiosis. When one or more pairs of chromosomes fail to separate normally resulting in a gain or loss of chromosomes in the daughter nuclei
In plants that have alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes by mitosis. The haploid gametes unite & develop into sporophytes.
The multicellular diploid form that results from the union of gametes. It produces haploid spores by meiosis that develop into gametophytes.
a haploid cell produced in the sporophyte by meiosis.
the production of eggs in females by the process of meiosis and maturation
Sequence of events that produces sperm in the seminiferous tubules of the testes
DNA condenses to form visible chromosomesEach homologous pair of chromosomes physically pairs up w/ ea other. Called synapsis & the resulting pair of sister chromatids is called a tetrad. (4 chrom)Crossing over (exchange of alleles) Nuclear envelope
tetrads line up along equator of the cellIndependent assortment of homolog chrom. that randomly segregate Centromere for 1 homologue in the the tetra attach to the spindle fibers facing 1 pole of the cellCentromere for the other homologue attach to s
tetrad separates. 1 replicated chrom. moves towards 1 pole & the other moves towards other poleit is important to note that only homologous pairs in the tetrad split and the chromosomes remain in the paired sister chromatid form.
Each pair of sister chromatids reaches it respective pole of the cell. Cytokinesis occursThere are now 2 cells, each w/ 23 chromosomes, in the paired sister chromatid form
If the nuclear enveloped reappeared during interphase, it disorganizes againThe duplicated homologous chromosomes remain in sister chromatid form. If the DNA unwound into chromatin during interphase, it condenses again
The centromeres for each sister chromatids attaches to the spindle fibers facing one pole of the cell.The sister chromatids migrate to the equator and line up with the centromeres on the equator.
The sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite poles as individual daughter chromosomes.
Chromosomes reach opposite poles of the cell.The nuclear envelope reforms. Each daugher nuclei contains 1/2 the genetic compliment(n) of the parent cell(2n)Chrom. unwind into chromatinCytokinesis takes place4 haploid(1n) daughter cells
Formula for Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H12O--> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Visible Light/Visible Spectrum
the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be seen as different colors (ROYGBV) to the human eye-in between infared (left less energy) and ultraviolet (right more energy)
a device that uses a prism or diffraction grating to disperse the light into its component wavelengths
The range of a pigment’s ability to absorb various wavelengths of light.
graph showing amount of light transmitted (in %) at a given wavelength through a medium (filter)
plant used to make chlorophyll extract
Inner membraneAmyloplastRibosomesGranumStromaouter membranethylakoid discslamella
Light Dependent Reactions
converts light energy (SUNLIGHT) to chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, releasing oxygenOccurs AT the thylakoid membrane
Use the energy stored in ATP and NADPH to produce carbohydrates
cross, or mating, between organisms that involves only one pair of contrasting traits.
the dominant allele has the same phenotypic effect whether present in one or two copies
the heterozygote will be intermediate in the phenotype
so if you cross a red flower with the ______ ______ flower will be pink(phenotypic blend)
not dominant or recessive... both alleles are expressed in the offspring
genes location on the sex chromosomes
an experimental mating of individuals differing at two genetic loci
analysis of what is observed and what is expected
-tests the validity of the Null Hypothesis
-with a low ___-______
your hypothesis is supported.
Degress of freedom(n)
n=the number of possible outcomes minus 1. ex. in a monohybrid cross that gives a phenotypic ratio of 3:1 there are 2 poss. outcomes. The D.O.F in this case is 2-1=1 dihybrid 4-1=3
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