What kind of language difficulties do hearing impaired children or deaf children have?
The most striking difficulty for hearing impaired children is phonological development. The speech is unintelligible, some sounds are omitted or misarticulated- less visible phonemes, part of consonant clusters, lack fluid coarticulation patterns. Deaf children have depressed vocabulary skills- limited exposure to language. Deaf children also experience difficulty in the acquisition of syntactic structure.
What kinds of educational methods would you prefer to teach hearing impaired or deaf children? Why?
I would prefer to use the total communication method, which is the oralist method (deaf children coached in speech production and trained to read lips), combined with some signing and gestural system. This way, if a word is hard to read on my lips I can sign it, or vice versa If I do not know the sign I can emphasize the sounding out of the word on my lips.
Who are the children with specific language impairment (SLI)? List two kinds of language difficulties they have.
SLI children are those whose language delay cannot be attributed to mental impairment, autism or other identifiable syndromes. 1-3%. Some SLI children have delayed language from onset. They have productive language delays but have good comprehension. They show delayed syntactic development (problems with normal syntactic production including plurals, possessives, tense markers, etc) They also have difficulty with a wide range of pragmatic functions.
What are the differences between normal developmental disfluency and stuttering?
Many normal developing children experience developmental disfluency (2-4 year old children). They hesitate, repeat or prolong sounds, syllables or words, or insert fillers such as um or well. Some children develop stuttering which is a greater degree of disfluency. This means more than 10 repeated words, syllables per 100 words. ALso, part word repetitions.
Please use your own words to describe the 10 principles to guide language instruction for children with SLI, see Figure 9.4 on p.363 in our textbook (Berko Gleason)
1. improve understanding of syntax and grammar in order to improve conversation and narrative abilities, 2. Grammar should rarely be the sole target of language intervention, 3. do not teach or master a form or ability in a single step, 4. child must be ready to acquire what is being taught and have a need for it, 5. clinicians and teachers should manipulate the child's social, physical and language environment to provide opportunities to use targeted forms.
Use your own words to describe the lat 5 principles to guide language instruction for children with SLI.
6. Clinicians and teachers should extend oral language targets, 7. manipulate discourse so that it is easier for children to identify targeted forms, through stress or ellipsis. 8. Recast children's errors into more mature adultlike forms to help the children compare his errors with more advanced productions. 9. Always present the child with full grammatical models rather than telegraphic speech. 10. Use elicited info to provide the child with practice on contrasting forms.
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