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Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to reduce a huge list of personality traits compiled by Gordon
Allport to ____ basic dimensions of personality.
Primary process thinking is associated with the ____, and secondary process thinking is associated
with the ____.
a. ego; superego
b. superego; id
c. ego; id
d. id; ego
According to Freud, the ____ is "like a man on horseback who has to hold in check the superior
strength of the horse."
d. alter ego
The portion of the personality that mediates between instinctual demands and the world of reality is
d. ego ideal
Sarah is torn between the need to study for an exam and her desire to go out with her friends. She
decides that she will go out later only if she completes her studying. This realistic decision reflects the
functioning of Sarah's
Giving self-justifying plausible excuses that hide the real reasons for our behavior defines the defense
mechanism known as
b. reaction formation
The process of pushing distressing thoughts into the unconscious and keeping them there is known
a. neurogenic amnesia
Graham is a 25 years old male who is extremely anxious about any type of sexual activity. According
to Freud's view of personality development, this anxiety may have arisen from
a. fixation at the genital stage of psychosexual development
b. excessive punishment during his toilet training as a toddler
c. improper weaning from the bottle when he was an infant
d. an unresolved crisis during the latency stage of psychosexual development
Which of Freud's psychosexual stages did he see as society's first systematic effort to regulate the
a. anal stage
b. oral stage
c. latency stage
d. genital stage
The theorist who advanced the concept that the unconscious has two layers, the personal unconscious
and the collective unconscious, was
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Carl Jung
c. Alfred Adler
d. Erik Erikson
According to Jung, one's collective unconscious contains
b. repressed or forgotten information
c. ancestral memories
d. the id and the superego
Freud's concept of the unconscious is most like Jung's
b. personal unconscious
c. collective unconscious
What is the name Carl Jung used to identify the level of the unconscious that stores latent memory
traces inherited from our ancestral past?
a. personal unconscious
c. primeval unconscious
d. collective unconscious
Adler is to individual psychology as Jung is to
a. depth psychology
b. existential psychology
c. analytical psychology
d. Gestalt psychology
Professor Stephenson argues that personality is the result of reciprocal determinism, that is that
internal mental events, external environmental events and overt behavior all influence one another and
determine an individuals personality. Whose theory of personality is she presenting?
a. Carol Rogers
b. John Watson
c. B. F. Skinner
d. Albert Bandura
The term that Albert Bandura uses to refer to the assumption that internal mental events, external
environmental events, and overt behavior all influence each other is
a. reciprocal determinism
b. mutual dependency
c. psychic determinism
d. reciprocal relativism
Dr. Epee believes that it is impossible to understand or predict an individual's behavior until you
figure out the salient psychological features of situations that evoke specific types of responses. Dr.
Epee's views most closely mirror those of
a. Alfred Adler
b. Carl Rogers
c. Walter Mischel
d. Gordon Allport
Which of the following approaches to personality is most firmly rooted in empirical research?
a. behavioral approach
b. psychoanalytic approach
c. humanistic approach
d. cognitive approach
Which of the following is NOT a criticism of the behavioral approach to personality?
a. overdependence on animal research
b. failing to provide unifying structural concepts
c. use of extensive empirical research
d. providing a fragmented view of personality
Which theorist argues that people have a strong need for affection, love and acceptance from others?
a. Alfred Adler
b. Carl Rogers
c. Walter Mischel
d. Gordon Allport
According to Carl Rogers, if your self-concept is reasonably accurate, it is said to be
a. congruent with reality
What need was Abraham Maslow expressing when he said that "what a man can be, he must be"?
a. the need for superiority
b. the need for unconditional love
c. the need to self-actualize
d. the need to achieve
Abraham Maslow called the need to fulfill one's potential the need for
According to Hans Eysenck, personality is largely
b. a function of unconscious forces
c. shaped by sexual conflicts
d. determined by external forces
Your psychology professor argues that personality is to a large extent determined by a person's
genes. Whose theory of personality is his argument most similar to?
a. Hans Eysenck
b. David Buss
c. Albert Bandura
d. Carol Rogers
Which of the following is NOT one of the main weaknesses in biological approaches to personality?
a. conceptual problems with heritability estimates
b. an overly optimistic view of human nature
c. the difficulty of separating the effects of nature and nurture
d. the lack of a comprehensive theory
Dr. Jack assumes that humans share an evolutionary heritage with other animals that includes
instinctive drift drive for self preservation, but unlike animals humans have also evolved complex
cognitive abilities that permit self-awareness. Dr. Jack's views are similar to the view of personality
put forward by the
a. evolutionary perspective
b. behavioral perspective
c. terror management theory
d. humanistic theory
What saves humans according to the Terror Management Theory?
a. self actualization needs
b. observational learning
c. genetic heritage
Early investigations of the connection between culture and personality were largely guided by which
of the following theories?
a. Adler's individual psychology
b. Bandura's social cognitive theory
c. Freud's psychoanalytic theory
d. Skinner's operant conditioning theory
Research findings indicate that, in general, ____ is fairly consistent across cultures.
b. the use of defense mechanisms
c. conceptions of the self
d. the trait structure of personality
The fact that there are literally dozens of insightful theories of personality illustrates which of the
following unifying themes of your textbook?
a. Psychology is empirical.
b. Psychology is theoretically diverse.
c. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
d. Our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage.
The idea that a person's unconscious needs will determine how he or she perceives relatively
unstructured stimuli is the basis for
a. personality trait tests
b. the MMPI
c. the TAT
d. personal trait checklist
Bess uses a software package on her computer to create a number of abstract images. She finds that
each person who looks at the images sees something different in them. If Bess records the responses
that each person provides she may find the answers are similar to those that would be obtained using
a. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
b. Rorschach test
c. NEO Personality Inventory
d. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
The hindsight bias is also known as the ____ effect.
a. "I knew it all along"
b. "No pain, no gain"
c. "Opposites attract"
d. "Everyone else is crazy"
According to the medical model,
all mental illnesses are caused by biological factors
all mental illnesses can be treated using drugs
abnormal behavior can be thought of as a disease
all physical illnesses have a psychological component
Etiology refers to the
a. projected course of a condition
b. apparent cause of a condition
c. study of mental illness
d. collection of a group of symptoms
Randall is an alcoholic who has been fired from four jobs in the past year, but he is not concerned because hefeels that there are lots of other jobs available. In this example, the fact that Randall's alcoholism affects hisoccupational status would most likely be considered
Behavior that causes anxiety or concern for the affected individual may be considered to be
DSM-IV uses five "axes" to describe a person's problem. The actual diagnosis of a disorder is made on
Axis I only
Axis II only
Axis I and II
Selena constantly thinks about climbing up the stairs to the roof of her building and jumping into the streetbelow. Selena's uncontrollable thoughts could be considered an example of
Recent research into the possibility of a neurochemical basis for anxiety disorders has generated evidence thatsuggests that
Abnormalities in neural circuits that use ____ have recently been implicated in panic andobsessive-compulsive disorders.
Somatoform disorders involve
the deliberate faking of physical illness
apparent physical illness caused by psychological factors
genuine physical illness caused in part by psychological factors
psychological disorders that respond to medical intervention
The somatoform disorders include
fugue, multiple personality, and conversion disorders
somatization disorder, fugue, and hypochondriasis
psychogenic amnesia, fugue, and multiple personality
somatization disorder, hypochondriasis, and conversion disorder
Just before a major singing competition, one of the singers loses his voice. A physical examination reveals nomedical cause for the condition. This is most likely a case of
The major difference between a somatization disorder and a conversion disorder is that
Which of the following personality characteristics appears to be related to the likelihood of developing asomatoform disorder?
Which of the following statements is least accurate concerning dissociative identity disorder?
The separate personalities are usually aware of one another.
Transitions between the separate identities often occur suddenly.
The separate identities can differ in age, race, gender, or sexual orientation.
Most individuals with dissociative identity disorder also have anxiety, mood, orpersonality disorders.
Dissociative identity disorders have been suggested to result from
a neurotransmitter imbalance
a neurotic personality
intentional role playing
The median duration of depressive episodes is
7 to 14 days
4 to 6 weeks
Adena has just recovered from her first episode of major depression. Based on the findings from longitudinalstudies, the likelihood that Adena will experience or relapse within the next five years is
a. approximately 60 percent
b. less than 10 percent
c. just over 25 percent
d. between 40 and 45 percent
Art always seems to be grumpy and irritable. He has a poor self-image and is usually socially withdrawn.Although he never feels totally dejected and out of control, he feels that life is not very exciting or enjoyable.Art's symptoms are most consistent with those seen in
antisocial personality disorder
Researchers have found that depression occurs
nearly twice as frequently in women as in men
nearly four times as frequently in women as in men
with equal frequency in women and in men
nearly twice as frequently in men as in women
Dysthymic disorder is to ____ as cyclothymic disorder is to ____.
major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder
bipolar disorder; schizophrenic disorder
major depressive disorder; schizophrenic disorder
bipolar disorder; major depressive disorder
Which of the following neurotransmitters has been implicated in mood disorders?
According to Seligman people that exhibit a(n) ____ explanatory style are especially vulnerable to depression.
Abby was watching a documentary on some of the horrors of the Viet Nam War. Even when she saw soldiersbeing blown up after stepping on land mines, she showed no emotional reaction or response. In this case,Abby is displaying symptoms of
blunted or flat affect
antisocial personality disorder
The text uses the term psychotherapy to refer to ____ used in the treatment of mental disorders andpsychological problems.
approaches based on learning principles
approaches based on "talk therapy"
approaches based on altering physiological functioning
all the diverse approaches
Therapists who emphasize altering an individual's physiological functioning in treatment use the ____approach to psychotherapy.
Many times, an individual with a psychological disorder will recover from the disorder without receiving anytreatment. This phenomenon is called
Joseph Wolpe developed
social skills training
Which group of therapeutic drugs used to treat psychological disorders are commonly referred to astranquilizers?
Common side effects associated with antianxiety drugs include all of the following except
Which of the following statements concerning antipsychotic drugs is false?
a. they usually show effect within two days to a week
b. they have many side effects such as drowsiness, tremors, and muscular rigidity
c. they have an effect on dopamine synapses
d. they reduce symptoms in approximately 95% of patients
A severe side effect associated with ____ drugs is ____, which is a neurological disorder marked byinvoluntary writhing and tic-like movements.
antipsychotic; tardive dyskinesia
antidepressant; tardive dyskinesia
antidepressant; Parkinson's disease
antipsychotic; Parkinson's disease
Results from a number of studies suggests an elevated risk of suicide is associated with the use of
Many managed care systems hold down cost by
a. requiring physicians to prescribe older, cheaper medicationsb. limiting the length of treatment
c. directing patients to less well-trained counselors
d. all of the above
A psychologist who draws ideas from two or more systems of therapy instead of just one system is bestdescribed as
biomedical in approach
eclectic in approach
cognitive-behavioral in approach
insightful in approach
Of the following factors, which one factor tends to have the largest effect on the effectiveness of therapy?
the therapist practices client-centered therapy or psychoanalysis
the client is in individual therapy
the therapist is in private practice
the client likes the therapist
A social schema is a.
an estimate as to the correlation between a social trait and its association with behavior
b.a widely held belief that people will behave in a certain way
c.a widely held belief that people will have certain characteristics because of their membership in a specific group
d.an organized cluster of ideas about categories of social events attributions
The illusory correlation effect occurs when we
see correlations between social traits that really aren't there, because our expectations distort our memories
Daniel started watching a movie that was half over. He thought the male lead in the movie was a private detective, however the lead character was actually a medical doctor. Later, when Daniel is discussing the movie with his friends, he remembers the character's beat-up old car and the fact he ate a lot of fast food. His friends focus more on the character's logical assessment of the facts involved in the case. These differences in memory may result from
If you tend to overemphasize internal characteristics in explaining the behavior of others, you are evidencing the a.
false consensus effect
fundamental attribution error
situational attributional tendency
Doug feels that he has worked very hard to get his promotion. However when his last sales pitch did not end up in a sale he attributed the failure to the fact that the company he was "pitching to" was having financial difficulties. Doug's behavior is an illustration of ____.
a.the actor-observer effect.
b.a fundamental attribution error.
c.the foot-in-the-door technique.
d.the self-serving bias.
Cognitive dissonance refers to the state one is in when
beliefs are contrary to one's peer group
interpersonal relationships are unbalanced
behaviors are socially undesirable
cognitions are inconsistent
In the study by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959), subjects who were paid $1 for "lying" exhibited ____ attitude change; subjects who were paid $20 for "lying" exhibited ____ attitude change.
The makers of the new Adobe automobile are sick and tired of TV commercials that rely on images of sex and life in the fast lane to sell cars. Besides, they believe that if their commercials simply present the true facts about why their car is the best on the market, potential buyers are more likely to develop a long-lasting preference for the Adobe. According to the elaboration likelihood model, this approach exemplifies the
central route to persuasion
Yielding to real or imagined social pressure defines which of the following terms? a.
Which of the following psychologists is known for conducting classic research on conformity?
In Asch's studies of conformity, subjects
became the recipients of painful electric shocks delivered by an experimental accomplice
b.were ordered to give consistently wrong answers to simple questions
c.indicated which of three lines matched a "standard line" in length
d.were ordered to deliver painful electric shocks to a stranger
In Asch's studies, ____ were found to be the key determinants of conformity.
task difficulty and group size
the group leader's personality and group unanimity
group size and group unanimity
group size and the subjects' intelligence
In Asch's studies, what was the relationship between group size and conformity?
a.Conformity increased as group size went from two to four, and then decreased.
b.Conformity increased steadily as group size went from two to four, and then leveled off.
c.Conformity did not change with group size.
Conformity increased steadily as group size was increased up to fifteen.
Which of the following psychologists is known for conducting classic research on obedience to authority?
Obedience is a form of compliance in which people change their behavior in response to
requests from others
In Milgram's research on obedience, what was the teacher's perception of what would happen when the learner made a mistake?
a.The learner would be negatively reinforced.
b.The experiment would have to be terminated.
The teacher would be asked to change places with the learner.
The learner would receive a shock.
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