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In the late nineteenth century, the way Americans thought was transformed by
A.) Albert Einstein
C.) African Art
D.) Sigmund Freud
In the late nineteenth century, Johns Hopkins, Jonas Clark, and John D. Rockefeller were all
A.) Advocates of realism in painting
B.) Wealthy founders of new universities
C.) Naturalistic Novelists
D.) Social scientists influenced by Darwinism
The first union to welcome blacks, women, and immigrants into its ranks was the
A.) Industrial Workers of the World
B.) National Labor Union
C.) American Federation of Labor
D.) Knights of Labor
Most americans reacted to the growth of huge industrial and financial organizations and the increasing complexity of economic relations by
A.) Joining socialists in their demands for government ownership of basic industries.
B.) Doing nothing, since most Americans were unaware of the vast changes in the economy.
C.) Fearing monopolistic power, yet being greedy for all the new goods and services.
D.) Praising them as results of the freemarket.
By the middle of the 1880s, __________ monopolized the oil industry in the United States.
A.) Alfred Chandler
B.) John D. Rockefeller
C.) Harry Sinclair
D.) J.P. Morgan
The theory of evolution by natural selection which helped Americans justify their exploitation of others was the work of
A.) Charles Darwin
B.) Jean Lamarck
C.) Gregor Mendel
D.) Charles Lyell
Haymarket Square Riot
As a result of the _________, membership in the Knights of Labor declined quickly because the public associated unions with violence and radicalism.
A.) Pullman strike
B.) Haymarket Square Riot
C.) Homestead Steel strike
D.) Cigarmakers Union strike
The labor troubles of 1877 were
A.) More violent and destructive than any previous strike in America.
B.) The result of significant gains in prosperity for business.
C.) The work of foreign labor agitators.
D.) Centered in Pennsylvania's coal fields.
The "new" immigrants from eastern and southern Europe
A.) Usually came with some funds in reserve.
B.) Settled in ethnic neighborhoods in the urban centers.
C.) Moved west as quickly as possible.
D.) Could generally read and write English.
The __________ process directed a stream of air into a mass of molten iron, burning of impurities, and greatly lowered the price of steel.
Beginning in the late 1880s, the source of American immigration shifted to new immigrants from
A.) Southern and Eastern Europe
B.) Southern and Western Europe
C.) Northern and Western Europe
D.) Northern and Eastern Europe
The urban ethnic neighborhoods of the late nineteenth century were
A.) Ghettos in the European sense.
B.) Destroyers of traditional immigrant culture.
C.) Crowded and unhealthy
D.) The main cause of urban problems.
After the railroads, the second most important development in America's industrial advance in the late nineteenth century was the transformation of
A.) Iron manufacturing
B.) Electrical utilities
C.) Flour and other grain milling
D.) Petroleum production
Drop in prices
Generally speaking, the formation of monopolies during the 1870s caused a
A.) Series of depressions
B.) Drop in prices
C.) Sharp rise in prices
D.) Shortage of consumer goods
Known as the "Wizard of Menlo Park," the inventor of the phonograph and the electric light bulb was
A.) Thomas A. Edison
B.) Herman Frosch
C.) George Westinghouse
D.) Alexander Graham Bell
In 1890, Congress tried to restore competition by outlawing the restraint of interstate trade by corporate monopolies with the __________ Act.
B.) Clayton Antitrust
C.) Sherman Antitrust
D.) Northern Securities
The first giant corporations, capitalized in the hundreds of millions of dollars, were
A.) Steel corporations
B.) Interregional railroad systems
C.) Telegraph and telephone systems
D.) Public utilities
The most influential social Darwinist was the English thinker
A.) Aldous Huxley
B.) Alfred Lord Tennyson
C.) Lester Frank Ward
D.) Herbert Spencer
Henry George, Edward Bellamy, and Henry Demarest Lloyd were all late nineteenth century
A.) Radical reformers
B.) Railroad executives
C.) Oil industry executives
D.) College presidents
Census records reveal that the average urban American of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
A.) Experienced considerable geographical mobility.
B.) Tended to remain where she or he was.
C.) Lived on starvation wages.
D.) Was a "new" immigrant.
Henry George, author of Progress and Poverty, advocated
A.) The single tax
C.) Social Darwinism
D.) Laissez-Faire economics
Andrew Carnegie dominated the __________ industry.
Industrialist Andrew Carnegie donated millions of dollars to help
A.) Build public libraries
B.) Underwrite collections of American Art.
C.) Stimulate new women's colleges.
D.) Feed starving painters
The leader of the American Railway Union in its dramatic 1894 strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company was
A.) Eugene Debs
B.) Terence Powderly
C.) William Sylvis
D.) Samuel Gompers
The main reason for immigration to the United States during the late nineteenth century was the
A.) Collapse of the peasant economy in central and southern Europe.
B.) Religious persecution in Southern Europe.
C.) Industrial revolution in Northern Europe.
D.) Desire for economic betterment.
According to your text, by the end of the nineteenth century, American intellectual and cultural life
A.) Continued to merely imitate European trends.
B.) Returned to imitating European trends after decades of cultural independence.
C.) Slavishly praised the achievements of robber barons like John D. Rockefeller
D.) Finally emerged from the shadow of Europe.
In the late nineteenth century, the new technology of the web press and the linotype machine
A.) Sharply cut printing costs for newspapers.
B.) Demanded higher quality paper.
C.) Allowed the printing of longer manuscripts.
D.) Led to higher quality illustrations in magazines.
The first newspaper editor to reach a truly massive audience without abandoning his basic integrity was
A.) William Randolph Hearst
B.) Frank Leslie
C.) Joseph Pulitzer
D.) Horace Greeley
Harper's The Century and Atlantic Monthly were all magazines specializing in
A.) Cheap, romantic fiction.
B.) Serious, conservative articles.
C.) Illustrations of current events.
D.) Attacks on political corruption and social evils.
In 1869, __________ introduced the elective system and took the lead in reforming higher education in the Gilded Age.
D.) Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins became the leader in graduate education under the presidency of
A.) Herbert Baxter Adams
B.) Henry Adams
C.) Daniel Coit Gilman
D.) William Rainey Harper
The Morrill Act land-grant university system
A.) Was co-educational from the start.
B.) Opened its doors only to women students.
C.) Specialized in graduate education.
D.) "Raided" the best institutions to secure a superior faculty.
Vassar College holds the distinction of
A.) Being the first co-educational, racially integrated college.
B.) Being the first college for women.
C.) Establishing the firs modern graduate school.
D.) Admitting the first woman to college.
In The Higher Learning In America, Thorstein Veblen
A.) Advocated creation of a national university in Washington, D.C.
B.) Called for creation of a series of land-grant universities.
C.) Praised the elective system.
D.) Criticized the intrusion of business into universities.
Members of the institutionalist school of economics such as Richard T. Ely and John R. Commons thought that
A.) Darwin's ideas explained how slowly society evolved.
B.) Religion, not science, was the key to truth.
C.) All economic activity was governed by immutable natural laws, exactly like Newton's laws about physics.
D.) Actual industrial conditions should be studied with practical social reform as a goal.
Like other new political scientists, Woodrow Wilson believed that politics was
A.) An orderly, rule-governed system.
B.) An impersonal set of institutions.
C.) A dynamic process.
D.) Based on abstract principles.
According to German educator Johann Friedrich Herbart, good teaching called for
A.) Psychological insight and imagination.
B.) Frequent drills and recitations.
C.) Only facts and a birch rod.
D.) Only facts and a birch rod.
The educator John Dewey insisted that
A.) Schools should only teach the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic.
B.) Churches should assume a larger role in education.
C.) Home and family should be the center of education.
D.) Education was the fundamental method of social progress.
The emphasis of Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. ,upon evolutionary change had a profound impact upon twentieth century.
In his frontier thesis, Frederick Jackson Turner argued that
A.) Laws should evolve as times and conditions change.
B.) The frontier gave Americans their unique character.
C.) The frontier had inhibited democracy.
D.) Democracy began among the Teutonic people.
American literature immediately following the Civil War might best be described as
A.) Unrealistic, sentimental pandering to middle-class preconceptions.
B.) Realistic portrayals of the contemporary world.
C.) Studies of the complexities of industrial society.
D.) Philosophic exporations of human nature.
The new literary style of the 1870's and the 1880's which often examined social problems such as slum conditions and portrayed people of every social class was
The author of novels such as Huckleberry Finn, whose acute reportorial eyes and ears caught the spirit of his age, was
A.) Herman Melville
B.) Henry James
C.) Mark Twain
D.) William Dean Howells
The most influential literary critic of the late nineteenth century was
A.) William Dean Howells
B.) Frank Norris
C.) Stephen Crane
D.) Mark Twain
The late nineteenth-century naturalist writers, such as Stephen Crane, portrayed
A.) Customs and dialects identified with a particular region of the country.
B.) Virtuous heroines and heroes in mortal combat with dastardly villains.
C.) Humans as mere animals in a merciless Darwinian world.
D.) Society somewhat realistically but emphasized the "smiling aspects" of life.
The author who spent most of his adult life in Europe, writing about the clash between American and European values in a rarefied, overly subtle style was
A.) William Dean Howells
B.) Stephen Crane
C.) Theodore Dreiser
D.) Henry James
In works like The Gross Clinic, American painter Thomas Eakins
A.) Revealed his great debt to the French impressionists.
B.) Explored a brooding, mystical world.
C.) Displayed his fascination with arrangements of pure color and space.
D.) Captured the realism of the new scientific age.
Probably the most famous painting by an American, Arrangement in Grey and Black, is the work of
A.) Mary Cassatt
B.) Winslow Homer
C.) Albert Pinkham Ryder
D.) James A. McNeill Whistler
The American expatriate artist deeply influenced by French Impressionism was
A.) Winslow Homer
B.) Thomas Eakins
C.) Mary Cassatt
D.) Charles L. Freer
The most influential philosopher of his times and the main exponent of pragmatism was
A.) Josiah Royce
B.) John R. Commons
C.) William James
D.) Charles S. Pierce
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