A phrase composed of an antecedent and a relative pronoun, such as "who," or "which."
"the antecedent, [(which, who, whose etc.) did something], did something else"
Verbal noun from the fourth principal part of the verb. Expresses purpose or specification (e.g. "I have come to see you." or "That news was sad to hear.") When used to express purpose with verbs of motion, the verb ending is "-um," and is paired with an accusative noun. When used to express specification, the verb ending is "-u," and is paired with an ablative noun.
Noun case that expresses "Place where" (as opposed to motion towards or away)
The following have a locative case:
proper names of cities, towns and small islands
the nouns "humus," "domus," and "rus."
The locative looks the same as the dative, except in the 2nd sg. declension, when it looks like the genitive case.
Verbs that do not represent direct action on another object. Essentially, not the accusative case. Certain intransitive verbs take the dative case.
Verbs that are active in form, but passive in meaning. There are only three principal parts for a deponent, as the fourth principal part would be the perfect passive participle, which is the same thing as the third principal part of a deponent.
Numerical Amount (1000+)
1000 things = "mille"
More than 1000 things = "milia"
More than 1000 things, out of an even larger group of things = "ex" + the ablative case
Statement that is not reported directly by quotation marks
In English, introduced by the word "that"
Always introduced by a verb of saying, informing, thinking, knowing, or perceiving
In Latin, always an Infinitive Verb
The subject is always in the Accusative Case
Infinitives w/ Indirect Statements
The present infinitive indicates same time as the main verb
The perfect infinitive indicates time before that of the main verb
The future infinitive indicates time after that of the main verb
Used to compare two ideas (e.g. the bird is hungrier than the owner)
"-errimus, -a, -um" for adjectives ending in "-er"
"-illimus, -a, -um" for adjectives ending in "-ilis"
"-issimus, -a, -um" for adjectives ending in anything other than those ↑ above
Verbal adjectives which modifies a substantive
Has a tense, voice, gender, number and case
Must agree with the substantive in gender number and case
In the present active, perfect passive, future active, and future passive
Can also be used as nouns (e.g. "amans" = a lover)
A verb form used to express necessity or obligation.
Form = [Future passive participle] + "sum"
Often used with the Dative of Agent
In English, necessity words include: "is to," "has to," "must," "should," "ought to"
Ex. "This must happen today"
Dative of Agent
Dative case noun used to express agency (the "do-er") with the Passive Periphrastic. (e.g. "The garbage should be taken out by you.")
A construction which expresses the circumstances under which an action occurs. (e.g. "With the enemy pursuing us, we cannot pause.")
Expressed as a substantive in the ablative modified by a participle
In English, translated as
A verbal noun ending in "-ing" in English (e.g. "The art of swimming is easy to learn")
Only has forms in the neuter singular of the Genitive, Dative, Accusative and Ablative cases
Same form as the Gerundive (the future passive participle), but is ACTIVE in meaning
A verbal adjective, which is the same as the future passive participle of the verb, which can be used as an adjective literally, or with the passive periphrastic to indicate necessity.
Key Differences Between the Gerundive and the Gerund
The Gerudive is an Adjective, while the Gerund is a verbal noun
As an adjective, the Gerundive has a full set of masculine, feminine and neuter endings, both singular and plural, for all cases. The Gerund has only neuter singular forms and only in the genitive, dative, accusative and ablative cases
The Gerundive is passive in meaning, while the Gerund is active in meaning
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