Latin Rule in Byzantium and its Aftermath Byzantium in Decline from within (post 1025) The ?problem? with the free peasantry Emperor Basil II (r 976 ? 1025) as their defender- Understood that the peasantry was the backbone of the economy and provided military service. Fought to keep peasantry free. Land owning peasants which were the base for byzantine stability Nobility always fighting with peasantry and trying to take their lands Weak leadership after Basil?s death in 1025 Did not understand the importance of the peasantry Weak military experience Nobility starts to overrun the lands of the peasantry Result: Decline of peasantry and army and in turn forced state to rely more heavily on mercenaries for military aid. Had terrible loyalty problems with mercenaries. Economic Dominance of Byzantium by Italian City ? States Esp. Genoa and Venice Supplied navy because Byzantium was too poor to field their own navy. Make their money as merchants and request tax exemptions to trade Forced to give in and Weakening tax base Genoa and Venice can now undercut the merchants with in Byzantium Economy of Guilds and Merchants goes under Lower and Lower revenues Massive Tax Hikes Last thing free peasantry needed was burden of heavy taxation. Byzantium?s External Treats (post 1070) Seljuk Turks 1071 Battle of Manzikert ? remember betrayal and let down of the nobility/mercenary forces. Beginning of the End Considered the last real shot the Byzantium had to hold authority in the region Most of lands on Asia Minor lost to the Turks Whole new sultanate established The First Crusade (1095 ? 99) Emperor Alexius I Conmenus (r. 1081 ? 1118) ? Wanted the west to come and help him against the Turks, rather he was overrun by crusaders. Gains a bit of land back thru the crusade on Asia Minor Did not stay off the decline of the empire Continuing Seljuk Treat. Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143 ? 80) ? Stabilized the empire for awhile. Did not fight back against the Turks 1176 Battle of Myriocephalum ? Central Asia Minor: Huge setback for the Byzantines. All of the gains they had made against the Seljuks had been lost. Affirmation that The Byzantines were nowhere near as strong as the Seljuks. Clearly not the power they once were. Increasing Tension between East and West Religious: 1054 Schism Differences between Eastern Orthodox and Western Catholic and grown until they held no common ground Esp. difference between the ideas of icon worship Filioque Controversy: ?and the Son? controversy ? fight broke out over the dispute of whether the holy spirit was transferred to this world thru just the father or also thru the son. No resolution and in 1054 there was an official break between the two Churches. Leo IX was annoyed by how the Byzantines had treated him. So he excommunicates the Entire Eastern Church and the Patriarch Excommunicates the Western Church. Cultural: Attacks on Westerners. In Byzantines committing violent acts against westerners in Constantinople 1182 ? Massacre of the Latins in Constantinople (see hand out) All of the Latin quarters in Constantinople were burned and many of the Italians were killed Byzantium?s Grand Finale (1261 ? 1453) 1201 ? 1204 The Fourth Crusade Crusade starts by shedding fellow Christian blood by taking back the city of Zahra from the Hungarians for the Venetians (Crusaders indebted to them for nonpayment of ships) Doge Enrico Dandolo and the Venetians The Latin Empire of Constatinople (1204 ? 61) again conquered by the crusaders who are indebted to the Venetians. Crusader State lasts only until 1261 Byzantium continues to decline and the westerners came eastern and took holdings from the empire. Byzantium Re-established Michael VIII Palaeologus (r. 1259 ? 82) Byzantium is nowhere near as large as it was before the fourth crusade Ottoman Turks 1300 Rose to power in Asia Minor 1345 Entered Europe 1453 Conquered Constantinople on May 29th Empire was down to the city of Constantinople itself Last emperor Constantine XI dies fighting off the Ottomans Constantinople is changed to Istanbul and new Ottoman Empire Established.
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