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December 7, 1941: "a day that will live in infamy"
SCOTUS upheld constitutionality of wartime federal order detaining Japanese Americans in internment camps without legal hearings and due process
US provided supplies to cash-poor UK to be paid for in goods and services after the war; US now a non-belligerent on Allied side.
Rights1946 Harry Truman
Truman establishes; report published: To Secure These Rights—called for elimination of all aspects of segregation. In 1948 Truman banns racial discrimination in federal hiring and orders desegregation of armed forces—though this is not carried out until outbreak of Korean War in 1950.
To combat charges of being "soft on communism", Truman established this board to review political loyalties and affiliations of government employees.
Gen George Marshall proposes extensive program of economic aid and loans to all European countries in order to restore economic health and stability and avert communist takeover.
After Republicans gain control over Congress in 1946 elections, they attempt to roll back union gains under New Deal and WWII: 1) made "closed-shop" illegal—union membership not required for hiring, but "union-shop" permitted—new workers required to join unions after hiring; "open-shop"—no one required to join union at all; 2) 80-day cooling-off period for strikers in key industries; 3) ended practice of employers collecting union dues; 4) forbade secondary boycotts; 4) forbade union contributions to specific political campaigns; 5) required anti-communist oath from union officers
Truman declares that the US must support free peoples who were resisting communist domination. Used to justify aid to Greece and Turkey.
Required communist-front organizations to register with Attorney General. Prevented members from defense work and travel abroad. Passed over Truman's veto.
Restricts presidents to two terms + two-year or less balance of another president's term. Passed by Republicans determined to avoid a four-term president like FDR.
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, modeled on NATO, attempted to bring non-communist nations together in a military alliance with US. Included only Philippines, Thailand, and Pakistan.
National Interstate & Defense Highways Act1956 Dwight Eisenhower
Authorized President Eisenhower to spend $26 billion dollars to construct a national, interstate highway system connecting all the major cities in the U.S. with four lane highways that bypassed urban areas and had limited access to local highways. Regarded as a cold war defense expenditure, on the theory that the U.S. needed an efficient way to transport men, trucks, and tanks across the country in case of an invasion. The single largest public works program ever undertaken, it was virtually complete by 1975. It was paid for through a national gasoline tax.
Established a Civil Rights Commission and Civil Rights Division of Justice Department which was empowered to prevent interference with the right to vote.
US prepared to use force in the Middle East against communist aggression. Under this doctrine, US sent marines to Lebanon in 1858 to promote political stability during a change of governments. They left five months later.
1958 Dwight Eisenhower
1958 Dwight Eisenhower
In response to Sputnik disaster, US attempted to strengthen math and science education, foreign languages, education of gifted, loans and grants to students interested in teaching.
After uncovering extensive evidence of corruption and racketeering in some unions, Congress passed: 1) secret and fair union elections; 2) bill of union members' rights; 3) financial reports from unions to federal government; 4) no strikes by competitors of recognized unions
NEW FRONTIER: Sent young volunteers to third world countries to contribute their skills in locally sponsored projects: "Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country."—JFK Inaugural, 1961
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
GREAT SOCIETY: 1) Outlawed racial discrimination by employers and unions; 2) established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforce law; 3) eliminated remaining restrictions on black voting; 4) forbade discrimination in most places of public accommodation
On suspect evidence of North Vietnamese attack on US naval vessels in Gulf of Tonkin off North Vietnamese coast, Congress authorizes direct involvement of US troops in Vietnam in combat, not just "advisory", roles. This is as close to a declaration of war as US came in Vietnam.
Housing & Urban Development Act(HUD) Lyndon Johsnon
SCOTUS rules that convictions obtained by confessions of suspects without prior warning of their right to remain silent are unconstitutional. “Read him his rights!”--Miranda Rights.
1969 Richard Nixon
US would cut back involvement with Asian affairs; keep military commitments, provide military equipment, but short of nuclear attack Asians will have to defend themselves .
1970 Richard Nixon
Occupational Health and Safety Act Richard Nixon
Consumer's Product Safety Act Richard Nixon
SCOTUS legalized abortion by ruling that state laws could not restrict it during the 1st trimester, based on 4th amendment rights of a person to be secure in their persons
In the midst of the Watergate scandal, SCOTUS ruled that President Nixon’s tapes of his White House conversations were not protected by “executive privilege” and that he had to turn them over to the U.S circuit court investigating allegations of presidential wrongdoing Crucial separation of powers case that led to Nison’s resignation later that year.
Reacting to oil embargoes of early 1970's and rising cost of fuel and stagnant economy, Carter proposes: 1) using tax incentives to encourage production of domestic sources of clean fuels; 2) using tax incentives to encourage energy conservation and fuel efficiency for factories, homes, and cars.
REAGAN REVOLUTION: 25% tax cut across the board for all taxpayers; capital gains, gift, & inheritance taxes also reduced; Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) established
an economic pact linking Mexico, Canada, and US to open borders and markets in a free trade area
Law passed by Republican Congress and signed by Clinton in election year, defining marriage as “between one man and one woman.”
Federal government put cap on lifetime benefits for welfare recepients + stipulated job training & work requirements.
Controversial SCOTUS decision in 2000 presidential election; even though Gore won popular vote, victory depended on winning Florida’s electoral votes; outcome so close that recount was mandated; SCOTUS overturns Florida state supreme court ruling allowing recounts in certain counties; after recount was halted, election decided in Bush’s favor.
Treaty of Tordedillas
Treaty between Spain and Portugal establishing the demarcation line in the New World between their two territories. Gave Brazil to Portugal, rest of Latin America to Spain. Other European countries ignored this agreement in settling New World.
Pilgrim settlers established on shipboard terms of colony; established a foundation for orderly government based on the consent of the governed.
Foundation of England's worldwide commercial empire. Meant to capture a monopoly of trade in North American colonies. Stipulated that trade was to be carried only on ships made in England or America with at least 75% British or American crews. Later, certain "enumerated" goods were to be shipped only to British ports. Almost nothing could be imported to America without first going through British ports. Based on "mercantilism": national wealth and power maximized by maximizing exports and minimizing imports; wealth based on national gold reserves.
English forbid colonial settlement west of the crest of the Appalachian Mountains in order to limit conflicts between settlers and Indians.
In order to raise revenue to help defray the costs of the French & Indian War and the cost of continued defense of colonies against Indians, Britain taxes sugar imports to America. Violators tried in admiralty courts without benefit of jury trials or due process.
First direct tax on Americans, who are required to purchase in gold or silver revenue stamps on everything from newspapers to legal documents. Vigorous protest from Americans: Stamp Act Congress and organized boycotts of British goods force British repeal in 1766.
In order to recapture the American tea market which had been lost to cheaper Dutch tea, East India wins right to be only agent for tea sales in U.S. Tea would be taxed and revenues go to British government. Boston Tea Party and economic boycotts result.
Extended borders of Quebec and its Roman Catholic faith to Ohio River; non-representative Quebec government set up.
Last ditch effort of Second Continental Congress to head off war with Britain. Pleads with King George III to intercede with Parliament to restore peace after battles at Lexington & Concord & Bunker Hill.
Treaty of Alliance
French-American treaty to fight UK in American Revolution; agree not to sign seprate peace treaties; French military aid essential to U.S. success, especially at Yorktown.
Settlement of American Revolution: 1) US recognized as independent nation by European powers; 2) Mississippi River western boundary; 3) northern Florida southern boundary; 4) Britain retained Canada, but surrendered Florida to Spain; 5) Private British creditors free to collect debts owed by US citizens; 6) Congress to recommend to states to restore confiscated loyalist property
Several ordinances passed by first Confederation Congress included: 1) territorial government; 2) orderly system for each territory to progress to full and equal statehood; 3) orderly surveying and distribution of land ownership in six mile-square, subdivided into 36 one-square mile sections, one of which should be set aside for education; 4) bill of rights for settlers; 5) prohibits slavery north of the Ohio River. Most important acts of Congress under the Articles of Confederation.
Completes the judicial structure outlined in Article III of Constitution. Provides for Supreme Court with six justices and invests it with the authority to rule on constitutionality of state laws. It was to be interpreter of the "supreme law of the land". Establishes a system of district courts to serve as courts of original jurisdiction, and three courts of appeal.
Hamilton's proposal for extensive federal stimulation of industrial development through subsidies and tax incentives funded by excise tax on whiskey distillers and tariffs on imports.
Washington, deploring violent division of public opinion in US over French Revolution and Great Britain, urged Americans to be impartial toward warring nations. Feared US compliance with 1778 Franco-American Treaty of alliance.
Attempt to settle conflict at sea created by British war with Revolutionary France and English agitation of Indians near western US borders: 1) GB withdraw troops on western border; 2) agreed to arbitration commission to settle British financial claims on Americans. Very unpopular treaty. Many believe Jay "sold out" American interests.
In an effort to silence Adams administration critics, Congress passes Alien Act: lengthens time necessary to become citizen; Sedition Act: made public criticism of government a felony. Several Republican newspaper editors jailed for criticizing Adams.
Basing themselves on the "state-compact theory" of the Constitution, Madison and Jefferson convince state legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia to claim that states have the right to "nullify" acts of Congress with which they disagree.
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty ending War of 1812; provides for resumption of boundaries before war
Agreement between US and Spain to sell Florida to US and extend Mexican border to Pacific Ocean
Marshall decides that the state of Maryland cannot tax a federally chartered corporation (US Bank) within its borders; “the power to ntax is the power to destroy.” US Bank is constitutional.
US Supreme Court upheld the original charter of the college against New Hampshire's attempt to take over the college, Marshall ruled it was protected under the contract clause of the Constitution; set precedent of support of contracts against state interference
In order to balance the number of slave states represented in the Senate with non-slave states, Missouri is admitted as a new state carved out of the Louisiana Purchase as a slave state paired with Maine, carved out of Massachusetts, as a non-slave state. Southern boundary of Missouri—36 degree, 30' North—to be the northern limit to slavery in the Louisiana Territory..
American statement in Monroe's State of the Union address to Congress that the Western Hemisphere is "off-limits" to European powers.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Cherokee Nation & Worcester decisions
Annexation of Texas
n an attempt to settle the controversy over the extension of slavery to the new territories acquired from Mexico, several laws are passed: 1) California admitted as a free state; 2) land dispute between New Mexico and Texas settled in New Mexico's favor; 3) New Mexico & Utah territories not reserved for slavery, popular sovereignty will decide issue as territories organize for statehood; 4) slave trade—but not slavery—will be abolished in Washington, D.C.; 5) tougher Fugitive Slave Law; 6) Congresses gives up claim to regulate interstate slave trade; 7) Congress promises not to abolish slavery in Washington, D.C.
In an effort to secure the choice of Chicago as the railhead for the proposed trans-continental railway, Stephen Douglas of Illinois agrees to let popular sovereignty decide whether Kansas will enter US as slave state. This is a repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
Lincoln and Republican Congress granted 160 acres of government land free of charge to any person who would farm it for at least five years, in order to encourage western settlement by common people.
Before the end of the war, Lincoln pushed Congress and Union states to abolish slavery as an institution in order to complete and protect the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 from being overturned by Confederate states after they rejoined the Union. Passing it as a constitutional amendment secured the abolition of slavery everywhere and for all time.
Federal office established in conquered South to help newly freed slaves cope with the practical difficulties of life as well as helping with medical care and elementary literacy instruction. Negotiated labor contracts between freedmen and white landowners and former masters.
Civil War ruling; SCOTUS declared that suspension of habeas corpus was legal, but civilians arrested under it should be tried in civilian courts not military courts
Passed over Johnson's veto, sought to weaken Black Codes. Gave blacks equal rights with whites and authorized use of federal troops for enforcement.
Military Reconstruction Act
Divides the South into five military districts ruled by military governors with almost dictatorial powers; required approval of new state constitutions guaranteeing equal rights for blacks and acceptance of 14th amendment.
Infuriated by Johnson's obstructionism, Congress passes a law requiring Johnson to get Senate approval before removing government officials. Used to impeach Johnson.
Grants male ex-slaves the right to vote as full citizens in all elections. Unpopular in North, passes 3/4 of state legislatures only with approval of southern states. Disappoints female suffragettes who campaigned for women’s right to vote, too.
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