Mass Politics The Social Question in the late 19th century Transforms politics Politicians compete with unions and socialists (radical groups) The Great Depression Series of economic slumps, reduces profits, etc Workers getting more militant leading to a stronger political voice Doesn?t hit all countries at once Not the same severity as in 1929 Great Britain Reform act of 1884 Almost all men in Britain can vote Except those without permanent residence Ex) homeless, minors James Keir Hardie Scottish miner who wanted a party to represent workers Political parties don?t have a lot to offer these men, so they look to trade unions Established the labour party Rise of the labour party 1892: Hardie elected to the House of Commons 1906: 39 seats for Labour in parliament Response of the Liberal party 1906: law strengthening the right of unions to picket 1911: National insurance act Compulsory payments Liberalism on the defensive Germany Social Democratic Party (SDP) established 1875 1878: Bismarck attempts to suppress the SDP Assassination attempt on Kaiser Used this attempt to pass laws to suppress the SDP Failed attempt to suppress, thus he had to compete with 1883: sickness insurance law Had to be covered for up to 13 weeks Had to be below a certain income Divisions within socialism If the socialists agree with legislature, it appears that they agree with the government If the socialists go against the legislature, it appears that they are against workers Marxists support the revolution and want to overthrow the bourgeoisie ?Reform Socialists? move away from the standard Marxists, and decide it is possible to work within the system Paris Commune, 1871 Lead to split in socialists March to May 1871 The Communards Head the Paris commune Significant government control on economy Civil war between French government and the new government Pétroleuse: ugly, out of control women burning things Marx thought he saw the impending doom of the bourgeoisie Some socialists wanted to break away from this Anti-Semitism Much older history than Nazis, and also was not German exclusively Russia: pogroms France Organized massacres of Jews with official recognition from the government Unexpected since France had a democracy and the movement for equality Jews gain citizenship in 1791 which is revolutionary given the supported anti-Semitism Bernard Lazare, 1894: later in the 19th century anti-Judaism developed and became more ideological leading to anti-Semitism Edward Drumont: La France Juive (1886) (Jewish France) Appeals to the grievances of the lower class Blames an upper class of Jewish families The Dreyfus Affair 1894-1906 Alfred Dreyfus was blamed for spying on the Germans German embassy found telegrams in the trash from France But since he was Jewish he was convicted even though hand writing samples didn?t match Sent to Devil?s island, however the espionage continued The government did not want did admit the mistake and claims there were two spies Zionism Theodor Herzel: well known journalist Witnessed anti-Semitism in France Decided that the Jews needed their own Jewish state for protection Many Jews migrated to Wallenstein Women?s Emancipation Wages Divorce Laws England and Wales (1857) France (1884) The Naquet law: for women increases the number of situations in which a women could file for divorce Laws giving women ?ownership? of their earnings England and Wales (1870) Germany (1900) France (1907) Olympe de Gouges French feminist sent to guillotine Mary Woll Starcraft 1992: ?A vindication of the rights of women? Wages, voting (sought by feminist organization) Legal inequality from the Napoleonic code French Feminism Radical feminism Hubertine Auchert Tried to register to vote and run for office When she was rejected she refused to pay taxes No rights = no obligations Eventually married, said not to take the oath to obey Liberal feminism Didn?t pursue to vote British Feminism Emmeline Pankhurst Women Francise League (1889): blew up mail boxes Emily Davidson: threw herself onto a race track and was run over by a horse and killed 1886: women could open bank accounts without the consent of their husbands Reforms were gradual Moral double standards Women still couldn?t vote
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