The philosophical tenet that some of the content of the human mind is innate is called:
John Locke believed that:
the ideas humans had were acquired directly or indirectly after birth
The concept of hedonism as the control for voluntary behavior was proposed by which philosopher?
The British empiricists believed that complex ideas are
the product of simple sensations combined by association
Which of the following is not a primary rule of association?
Of the primary rules of association, which has been most prominent in considerations of associations?
The finding that gas infusions are not the cause of muscle contractions is best attributed to which of the following researchers?
Like Descartes, Sechenov believed that reflexes were due to
the fixed anatomy of the nervous system
Sechenow extended Descartes' theory of reflexes by suggesting that
some reflexes could be due to a stimulus releasing a response from inhibition
argued that nonhuman animals had the capacity for curiosity, attention, and aesthetic sensibility
Which of the following is not true of the work of Charles Darwin?
He provided compelling evidence for various forms of animal intelligence
George Romanes defined animal intelligence as
learning to make new adjustments or to modify old ones, in accordance with the results of an animal's own individual experience
What can behavioral studies of learning demonstrate?
the conditions under which information is acquired
Which of the following is necessary when using animal models to study human behavior?
one must identify a relevant similarity between the animal model and the human behavior of interest
Which of the following would correctly be identified as due to learning?
none of these
The general-process approach to learning assumes that
learning phenomena are products of elemental processes that are consistent across situations
Which of the following is not true of the general-process approach to learning?
the generality is assumed to exist in the contents and speed of learning
What has contributed to the evidence for the generality of learning phenomena?
studies of similar forms of learning across species
The generation of new, previously unknown facts about behavior must come from
studying live organisms
Which of the following is true regarding the respiratory occlusion reflex?
It is a multistage response to a reduction of airflow
Which of the following is the incorrect statement about reflexive behavior?
simple reflexes are not influenced by higher nervous system functions
The respiratory occlusion response in babies begins with which of the following?
pulling the head back; then the infant swipes the face, then cries
Successful nursing requires practice because the baby normally does which of the following actions?
may have a respiratory occlusion response
Which of the following is true regarding any given modal action pattern?
involves species-specific responses
Which of the following is not a modal action pattern?
the startle response of rats
Which of the following is one of the characteristics of a modal action pattern?
they are species-specific response patterns
Which of the following most correctly describes a sign stimulus?
sufficient for eliciting a modal action pattern
Appetitive behaviors are most correctly described by which of the following?
early components of a behavior sequence
Which of the following is likely to be the most stereotyped response?
a squirrel eating a walnut
Which of the following describes the difference between a general search and a focal search?
general searches occur when an animal does not yet know specifically where to look for food, while focal searches are spatially located
Which of the following is most likely to be characterized as an appetitive behavior?
a chef preparing a cream pie
Your professor is conducting an investigation of visual attention in infants. A relatively complex pattern will be presented to the infants, hopefully eliciting visual attention. What do you predict will happen with repeated presentations of the complex, visual system?
the infants will increase, then decrease responding
Which of the following is true of visual attention in human infants?
infants initially increase responding to repeated presentations of complex stimuli and decrease responding to repeated presentations of simple stimuli
The stabilimeter measures which of the following?
startle responses in rats
Which of the following is a true statement about habituation?
decreases responsiveness to a stimulus with repeated presentations
Habituation and sensitization effects perform which of the following functions?
focus attention of relevant stimuli
A loud tone is repeatedly presented to a group of rats. Initially, there is a large startle response that decreases across trials. The response decrease across trials may be due to
all of the above
Sensory adaptation occurs in which of the following physiological areas?
the sense organ
A bright light causes a startle response. The second presentation of the light elicits less of a response because the subject was temporarily blinded by the first light flash. This is an example of:
The dual-process theory suggests which of the following?
habituation processes occur in the shortest neural path between sense organs and muscles
Why would the same tone result in habituation for rats exposed to a low level background noise and sensitization for rats exposed to high level background noise?
The high level background noise and tone combination activated the state and S-R system
The time course of sensitization is determined by
the intensity of the stimulus
After you habituate to the sound of one clock's chime, you my not respond to the chime of another clock. This is due to
The stimulus specificity of sensitization is ___ that of habituation.
In Aplysia, habituation of the gill withdrawal effect due to stimulation of the siphon
has not effect on the response to stimulation of the mantle
Applying a shock to the tail of the Aplysia
increases responding to stimulation of both the siphon and mantle
Habituation in the Aplysia occurs due to
changes in the amount of neurotransmitter released by the sensory neuron
Sensitization in the Aplysia occurs due to
engagement of the facilitory interneuron
An emotion-arousing stimulus elicits
the a process directly
The opponent-process theory suggests that alcoholics continue drinking to
avoid opponent after-effects
Pavlov's study of classical conditioning began as an extension of his work on
Pavlov supplemented the funds for his laboratory by which of the following?
selling stomach juice
After giving you cat fish-shaped treats time and time again, you notice the cat begins to salivate at the sight of the fish-shaped snack. This is an example of
A hungry rat is exposed to a red light, followed by brief access to food. After several such trials, the rate approaches the light bulb when it is illuminated. In this example, the light is
a conditional stimulus
Conditional stimulus is to unconditional stimulus as
trained is to untrained
A rat is trained to press a lever for a small amount of food. WHile pressing the lever at a steady rate, the rat is presented with a tone-light stimulus that had been previously paired with foot-shock. When the tone-light stimulus is on, the rat decreases its rate of lever pressing. This decrease is an example of
The greatest amount of fear is indicated by a suppression ratio of
Decreasing suppression ratios indicated which of the following?
WHy are rabbits frequently used in eyeblink conditioning experiments?
They rarely blink
Which of the following best describes eyeblink conditioning?
slow and results in a CR being produced on many but not all trials
In order for food to be presented in an autoshaping procedure, the pigeon must do which of the following?
there are no requirements for the pigeon
Which of the following is not true of sign tracking?
subjects will approach the CS even if the CS and the US are presented at random times in relation to each other
Taste aversion learning can occur under which of the following circumstances?
after just one CS-US pairing
Surveys of human eating behavior suggest which of the following?
Even if you are certain that a food did not cause your illness, you are likely to develop an aversion to the taste of that food
The interstimulus interval refers to which of the following time periods?
between the end of the CS and the start of the US
The interstimulus interval is usually _____ the intertrial interval.
The most frequently used procedure for Pavlovian conditioning is
A rat is exposed to a three-second red-light stimulus. A short while later, a food pellet is delivered to the rat. This is an example of
Which of the following best describes backward conditioning?
The CS follows the US
Which of the following best describes the "trace interval" in trace conditioning?
the time between the end of the CS and the start of the US
A buzzer sounds every time food is made available for a pigeon. The buzzer starts when food is in the hopper, and stops when food is removed. The food is available for 3 minutes. This is an example of
A test trial in classical conditioning consists of presenting which of the following?
the CS alone
Which of the following is not a measure of conditioned responding?
counting the number of lever presses made to receive food
To conclude that an association has been established in a classical conditioning experiment, one must ensure which of the following?
that changes in behavior are not due to prior separate presentations of the CS and US
Instances in which exposure to the US is sufficient to create CR-like responses to the CS are called
You wish to train your cat to salivate at the sound of a tone. You are most likely to get the best results with which procedure?
Conditioned excitation is to conditioned inhibition as
sensitization is to habituation
A sign reading "out of gas" at a restaurant does not cause the frustration of the same sign at a service station because of which choice below?
the excitatory context is missing at the restaurant
Normally, you eat breakfast every morning at Sam's Diner. For the past three mornings, a large yellow banner has stated that Sam's is closed. Now, every time you see a yellow banner you turn away from the banner. Your conditioning is an example of
the standard procedure for conditioned inhibition
In the standard procedure for conditioned inhibition, which of the following is true?
the CS+ and CS- occur during the same trial
Only a single CS is needed for inhibitory conditioning in which of the following procedures?
a negative CS-US contingency
In a bidirectional response system, subjects move away from an excitatory CS. You expect the subjects to _____ an inhibitory CS.
The difficulty in investigating inhibitory conditioning of rabbit eyeblink responses is that
there are low baseline levels of eyeblinking in rabbits
Evidence for inhibitory conditioning in a summation test comes from which of the following?
none of the above are sufficient without a control group
X-market uses a red light commonly found at traffic intersections to indicate a sale price. Y-market uses a blue light rarely seen by its customers to indicate a sale price. The customers at Y-market learn to run to the sale item much sooner than those at X-market. This is an example of
retardation of acquisition
A rat is given 20 exposures to a red light cue. Then, the red light is presented paired with food delivery. Compared to a rat that did not receive the initial 20 exposures, this rat took a long tim to develop a CR to the red light. The slower learning is due to
the latent-inhibition effect
Which of the following is a function of preexposure to the CS or the US?
retards later associative learning
Increasing CS or US intensity has which of the following effects?
speeds associative learning and makes the final level of conditioned responding greater
According to studies of belongingness, rats conditioned with
illness learn a stronger aversion to taste than to audiovisual cues
Belongingness effects have been demonstrated to reflect which of the following?
Which of the following best represents how pigeons learn about food as compared to peripheral pain?
Pigeons associated food cues most readily with visual cues; pain with auditory cues
According to Pavlov, associative learning occurs most readily when which of the following is true?
The biological strength of the US is greater than that of the CS
Your friend is afraid of dogs because he was bitten as a child. One day while he was playing catch in a park, a large pack of dogs wandered into his view. Now he avoids parks. His change in behavior is likely due to which of the following?
Higher-order conditioning demonstrates which of the following?
After training, a CS can function as a US
According to the stimulus-substitution model, with training which of the following happens?
the CS activates the UR via excitation of US centers
The stimulus substitution model predicts which of the following
the general form of the CR will be similar to the form of the UR
In a sign tracking experiment, one group of pigeons will be trained with a water US, another with a food US. In a comparison of conditioned responding, you expect to find that pecking will develop in which of the following?
both groups, but pecking movements will be slower in the water US group
In a study with cocaine-using human subjects in the text, which of the following was found to be true?
cues associated with heroin used had little effect; cues associated with cocaine use elicited heart rate increases and negative changes in mood.
In a study with cocaine-using human subjects, cues associated with cocaine use elicited heart rate increases and negative changes in mood. These finding support which of the following?
These findings are consistent with any of the presented models
The drug dinitophenol causes increased oxygen consumption. According to the compensatory-response model, which of the following is true regarding exposure to cues associated with dinitrophenol?
will decrease oxygen consumption
The compensatory-response model challenges the stimulus substitution omdel because it suggests which of the following?
the CR and UR can be opposing in form
Studies that have used live rats as the CS paired with a food-US on trials presented to other rats demonstrate which of the following?
the shape of the CR can be determined by the CS
Hungry pigeons are presented with numerous tone-food pairings. The same birds are then presented with keylight-tone pairings and begin to peck at the keylight. Once keypecking develops, the birds are allowed to eat freely. Their keypeck behavior does not change. This suggests their response to the key is mediated by
How might a researcher determine whether conditioned responding is due to S-S or S-R learning?
change the value of the US
In the second phase of a blocking experiment, which of the following occurs?
both groups receive the same treatment
The blocking effect demonstrates which of the following?
that CS-US pairings are insufficient for associative learning
According to Kamin, the blocking effect occurs because of which choice below?
Stimulus A predicts the US and the subject is not surprised by the arrival of the US in later trials
Animal cognition is most correctly defined as
the use of an internal representation, or model, of some past experience as a basis for behavior
Which of the following is true of the "internal representations" discussed in a study of animal cognition?
Like gravity, they are a theoretical contruct
Of the following behaviors, which would not be included in a study of animal cognition by experimental psychologists?
Learning is not possible without memory. However, studies of learning do differ from those of memory. For example, in most studies of learning, _____, but in studies of memory_____.
the acquisition phase varies; the acquisition phase is varied
Your friend has volunteered for a psychology demonstration. She will be taught a list of words while wearing SCUBA gear at the bottom of a pool, and the she will be asked to remember the words when she returns to class. This demonstration is most likely exploring
Steve is taught to work a difficult maze. The time it takes for him to work the maze is tested on day, three days, and ten days after training. This is likely a study of
Reference memory is
long term retention of information necessary for successful use of incoming and recently acquired information
In what order are stimuli usually presented in a delayed matching to sample task?
start cue; sample stimulus; delay; test stimulus
A simultaneous matching to sample task differs from a delayed matching to sample task because
the interval between the sample stimulus and the test stimuli presentations is different
Which of the following is not a factor that determines performance in a delayed matching to sample task?
None of the above; all are important determinants of performance
A pigeon is presented with a brief presentation of a red light key, followed by a delay, and then a choice between a red key light and a green key light. If the pigeon pecks the red key light, a food reinforcer is delivered. In order to correctly perform in this task, the pigeon will
respond to the red light
Which of the following is a general rule?
select a stimulus that is the same as the sample
Which of the following is true of delayed matching to sample tasks?
select a stimulus that is the same as the sample
According to the trace decay hypothesis, which of the following is not likely to increase the duration of memory in a delayed matching to sample task?
increasing the number of training trials
Radial mazes are used primarily to test
performance in spacial memory tasks
The available evidence suggests that rats navigate correctly in radial arm mazes by
relying on visual cues in the testing room
strengthens synaptic connections
weakens synaptic connections
Stimulus coding is primarily a task that occurs during
Stimulus coding refers to
creating a neural representation of an experience
When he first beings shopping, Peter is able to remember what he has in his cart without referring to his list. He is using
If a hamster in a radial maze is keeping mind where it has been, it is using
Animals have been found to use different coding strategies depending on the task demands. FOr example, at the beginning of a long series of behaviors, an animal would likely use _____, whereas near the end of the series it would likely use _____.
retrospective memory; prospective memory
IN a 12-arm radial maze, a rat makes a correct response if it visits an arm is has not previously explored. After 10 arms have been explored, the rat is most likely using which coding strategy to make the last choices?
When rats and humans were both required to perform in a radial arm-type spatial memory task, researchers determined that
rats and humans are able to switch between retrospective and prospective coding strategies
Directed forgetting studies support of all of the following conclusions except
memory processes in animals involve the passive storage of information
CaMKII enhances synaptic efficacy by activating
Doogie mice differ from normal mice in that
they produce NR2B into adulthood
The retrieval failure hypothesis of retrograde amnesia suggests that amnesia results from
altered coding of relatively recent memories
Evidence to support the retrieval failure hypothesis of retrograde amnesia comes from studies in which
memory deficits can be overcome by reminder treatments
Which of the following is most closely analogous to human episodic memory?
the contents of memory for hidden food items in scrub jays
A task in which the discriminative stimulus is the length of time of an event is referred to as a _____ task.
A trial begins with presentation of a discriminative stimulus. If the stimulus is a light, a food pellet reinforcer will be set up after 20 seconds and can be earned with a lever press. If the stimulus is a tone, a food pellet reinforcer will be set up after 40 seconds and can be earned with a lever press. Test trials involve recording the subject's responses over 80 non-reinforced seconds, This procedure is called
a peak procedure
A trial begins with presentation of a discriminative stimulus. If the stimulus is a light, a food pellet reinforcer will be set up after 20 seconds and can be earned with a lever press. If the stimulus is a tone, a food pellet reinforcer will be set up after 40 seconds and can be earned with a lever press. Test trials involve recording the subject's responses over 80 non-reinforced seconds, This type of experiment is investigating an organism's ability to
The speed of the internal clock can be altered by all of the following except
the stimulus modality
To increase the speed of your subject's internal clock, you could
increase the rate of food reinforcement
According to the behavioral theory of timing, the discriminative stimuli for the required timing responses are
the subjects own adjunctive responses
In order to correctly perform the behavior required of a response chain, a subject must learn
A simultaneous stimulus array cannot be solved by learning
A dog is trained to fetch sodas from the refrigerator. It knows to first go to the refrigerator. Once at the refrigerator, it knows to pull on the door. When the door is open, it knows to grab the can. With the can in its mouth, it knows to return to its master. This dog probably learned
After learning to press five keys, "A through E," in alphabetical order, monkeys were given tests in which subsets of two keys were presented. A comparison of the latencies to press the second key revealed that as the number of letters missing between the two test keys increased, (BD) versus (BE) for example, the latency to press the second key _____, suggesting that the monkeys were using mental scanning to perform the task.
Monkeys were trained to respond sequentially in a simultaneous stimulus array procedure. After training, which of the following sets of test stimuli will lead to the longest latency to press the first key?
In order to respond correctly in tests of perceptual concept learning, a dol[hin must
respond similarly to members of the same category even if they have different elements
Studies of perceptual concept learning suggest
many species, including pigeons, form true perceptual concepts
Little Bobby points at a cow and says, "Doggie." When you ask him why he thinks the cow is a dog, he says that whenever he points to an animal with four legs and says, "Doggie," his mother laughs and pays attention to him. Bobby's response supports
The simplest explanation for perceptual concept learning is
Attempts to determine if nonhuman animals are capable of language have led to the conclusion that
this is not an answerable question
Human infants are said to have language
there is no one point where a child can be said to graduate to having language
The most sophisticated demonstrations of language competence have been obtained with
Which of the following is not a component of linguistic competence?
none of the above; all are components of linguistic competence
Your dog is sitting quietly in the front yard when an intruder approaches. As you would hope, the dog begins to bark vigorously and the intruder runs away. The dog's barking is an example of
it cannot be determined with the given information
The cats in Thorndike's puzzle boxes were able to escape more quickly over successive trials. Thorndike interpreted this performance change to reflect
Which of the following would most likely be used in a discrete trial procedure?
running down a runway to gain access to food
In a discrete trial procedure, the researcher can measure all of the following except
Magazine training involves which of the following
The frog jumping contest is fast approaching. Your jumper has a maximum leap of 5 feet, far less than needed for a win. In order to train your frog to jump farther, you should begin by giving it a fly when it jumps _____.
When shaping the behavior of an organism, you must
set each criterion so that at least some of the existing responses are reinforced
The major advantage of free-operant methods over discrete trial procedures is that
free operant methods provide the opportunity to observe changes in the likelihood of behavior over time
Which of the following is an example of positive reinforcement?
going out to dinner after winning an award
A positive contingency between a response and an appetitive stimulus is also known as
Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
Stella changes the oil in her car to avoid engine seizure
A negative contingency between a response and an aversive stimulus is also known as
Lyle leaves the theater because the music in the show he is watching is too loud. This is an example of
Brenda steals Kelly's car because Kelly went to Europe without her. This is an example of
Ralph only gets to watch television in the afternoons if he doesn't hit his sister. Otherwise, he must spend the afternoon in his room. This is an example of
differential reinforcement of other behavior
A rat in a skinner box receives a food pellet every fifth time it pushes the response lever. This is an example of
In some instances, removing a stimulus after some response decreases the occurrence of that response. This is an example of
Which of the following is not true about behavioral variability?
Thorndike determined that with extensive training, cats will open their mouths in order to gain release from a puzzle box, but will not give a bona fide yawn. This is an example of
The competition between natural responses and the responses required by the experimenter sometimes leads to the development of behaviors that interfere with an animal making an instrumental response. The development of these behaviors is called
Two groups of rats were trained to navigate a runway for food. ONe group earned a single food pellet, the other received three pellets. What will happen when they are both shifted to a situation in which they earn the alternative reward
rats that initially received the small reward will run faster for the larger reward than the rats that initially received the large reward did
The elevated responding for a favorable reward resulting from experience with a less attractive outcome is called
Graduate students are barely given enough money to buy noodle soup. When they finish their degrees they jump at the chance to work for a university's pauper wages. The universities are able to keep the salaries low and still have plenty of applicants because of
Dave the Druid makes a sacrificial offering of wine to the sun every 365 days. Each time he does so, the sun rises over the same stone. Dave believes pouring wine over the stone causes the sun to rise there because he has made a mistake in the _____ component of the response reinforcer relationship.
Which of the following is a conditioned reinforcer?
Which of the following is not a conditioned reinforcer?
keeping someone warm
According to Skinner, superstitious behavior is due to
Steve anxiously taps his pencil on his desk every day at 11:50. By 11:15 he is licking his lips. Assuming lunch is always served at noon, what, according to behavioral systems theory, best explains his pencil tapping behavior?
early components of foraging behavior
In the triadic design of learned helplessness experiments, subjects in group R that are restricted to the apparatus in the exposure phase show _____ avoidance learning in the conditioning phase.
Which of the following is thought in part to have helplessness as a mechanism of its development?
For 30 ten-minute trials, a rat received a food pellet every other lever press. This rat was on a _____.
Which of the following describes behavior reinforced on a fixed ratio schedule?
climbing a flight of stairs
Art teachers must often deal with "artists block" in their students. To break the block, they advise students to make a mark on the canvas with the paint brush. The professors are hoping to initiate
the ratio run
If a ratio requirement is increased from an FR 100 schedule to an FR 500 schedule, the subject will often pause periodically before completion of the ratio requirement. These pauses are due to
the ratio strain
A pigeon in a Skinner box periodically receives access to food after pecking on a key. Sometimes the pigeon has to peck 3 or 4 times, sometimes 5, and sometimes more. On average, the bird was reinforced every 5th peck. This pigeon was on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
Which of the following describes behavior reinforced on a variable ratio schedule?
pulling the arm of a slot machine
Which of the following individuals is most likely to be on a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement?
You notice that the pigeon in the laboratory you just entered has a particular way of pecking at the key in its cage. The pigeon seems to increase its rate of pecking towards the end of a two minute period, food is made available, and then pecking slows until the end of the next two minutes. YOu surmise that the pigeon is on a
fixed interval schedule
A cumulative recorder marks a scalloped pattern of responding when subjects are on a
fixed interval schedule
Your friend is taking a class with exams scheduled every three weeks You expect that he will study
very little following an exam, but with increasing rates at the end of the three weeks
A hungry pigeon is in a Skinner box and is pecking a key for access to food. The first food delivery occurs for the first peck after 1 minute has elapsed. The second occurs for the first peck after 3 minutes has elapsed. The third food delivery occurs for the first peck after 2 minutes has elapsed. All other pecks went unrewarded, but the pigeon did not receive access to food unless it pecked the key. The pigeon is most likely on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
Which of the following describes behavior reinforced on a variable interval schedule?
calling to see if the mechanic is finished with your car
When a VI schedule was yoked to a VR schedule so that pigeons on the VI schedule had the same opportunity to earn reinforcement as birds on the VR schedule,
subjects in the VR group pecked more vigorously than those in the VI group
A rat is reinforced only if it presses the bar within 5 seconds of its last bar press. This is an example of
differential reinforcement of high rates
Response rate schedules are most likely to occur for
a dancer learning steps to new music
A junior high school student complains to you that he is having a difficult time with his school work. On the one hand, he has to study enough to pass the frequent quizzes. On the other, he doesn't want to study so much as to be considered a nerd. You realize he is having trouble learning to respond to a new
A pigeon is reinforced only if it waits 30 seconds from its last keypeck before it pecks again. This is an example of
a variable ratio schedule
A concurrent schedule of reinforcement is used to investigate
concurrent schedules of reinforcement are used to measure
continuous choice behavior over time
Concurrent-chain schedules of reinforcement are used to measure
choice behavior with commitment
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