Learning Objectives 2 Animal Digestion
- Marquette University
- Biology 1001
- St. Maurice
- Learning Objectives 2 Animal Digestion
Last Modified: 2011-06-30
Related Textbooks:Principles of Life
- Alpha Cells- release glucagon when blood sugar is too low, fat cells turned into glucose
- Beta Cells- release insulin when blood sugar is too high, glucose turned into fat
- Feces stored, excreted periodically
- Feces becomes increasingly solid
- Herbivores and omnivores- longer alimentary canals than carnivores
- Microorganisms help herbivores digest plants
- Mutualistic bacteria and protists in fermentation chambers of vertebrates have enzymes that digest things such as cellulose to simple sugars, etc.
- Type 1- usually from birth, body does not produce insulin
- Type 2- usually developed, body does not react properly to insulin and glucagon
- Amylase-hydrolyzes starch and glycogen into smaller polysaccharides
- Mucin- lubricates food for easier swallow and protects lining of mouth
- Additional components- buffers preventing tooth decay, antibacterial agents
- Hydrolysis of food inside vacuoles
- Cells engulfs solid food by phagocytosis or liquid food by pinocytosis
- Newly formed vacuoles fuse with lysosomes with brings food together with enzymes so digestion can occur within protective membranes
- Excesses of water-soluble vitamins are excreted in urine.
- Excesses of fat-soluble vitamins are deposited in body fat so over-consumption may result in accumulation of toxic levels
- Large folds, villi, have microvilli, brush-like appearance has large surface area to absorb nutrients
- Humans store molecules in liver and muscle cells
- Excess energy is stored in form of glycogen
- Adipose fat cells also store energy
- Food moves along in a single direction, tube can be organized into specialized compartments which carry out digestion and nutrient absorption in stepwise fashion
- Animals can ingest food while earlier meals are still being digested
- Ferments ingested material
- Leads to anus and rectum
- Reabsorbs water that enters alimentary canal
- Fatty Acid
- Amino Acid
- Chyme from the stomach mixes with pancreatic, liver, and gallbladder juices
- Hormones released by the stomach and duodenum control the digestive secretions into the alimentary canal
- Fat globules turned into bile salts turned into fat droplets turned into pancreatic lipase turned into glycerol, fatty acids, and mono-glycerides
- Creates bolus- easier to swallow
- Tongue pushes bolus to back of oral cavity into pharynx
- Distinguishes which food should be processed further (taste)
- Proteins turned into pepsin turned into polypeptides turned into pancreatic enzymes turned into smaller polypeptides turned into pancreatic enzymes turned into amino acids
- Compartment with a single opening-pouch
- Most hydrolysis happens internally and undigested materials remain in cavity, usually excreted the same opening by which food entered
- Cannot eat more when food is still being digested
- Chemical energy for cellular processes
- Organic building blocks for carbohydrates and other macromolecules
- Essential nutrients
- Vegetation is more difficult to digest than meat
- Longer digestive tract furnishes more time for digestion and more surface area for nutrient absorption
- Breakdown of food compartments that are continuous with the outside of the animal's body
- Allows animal to devour much larger sources of food than can be ingested by phagocytosis
- Complete Digestion Tract/Alimentary Canal
- Gastrovascular Cavity
- Name the three nutritional needs that must be met by an animal’s diet.
- Explain why megadoses of fat-soluble vitamins are more dangerous than equally large doses of water-soluble vitamins.
- Compare intracellular and extracellular digestion
- Distinguish between a complete digestive tract and a gastrovascular cavity. What advantage does a complete digestive tract afford over a gastrovascular cavity?
- Name three functions of saliva and three functions of the tongue.
- Compare the uptake of an amino acid and a fatty acid in the small intestine. Trace the path of each molecule following its uptake.
- Explain how the small intestine is specialized for digestion and absorption.
- Describe the major functions of the large intestine.
- Describe the roles of symbiotic microorganisms in vertebrate digestion.
- Explain where and in what form energy rich molecules may be stored in the human body.
- Distinguish between alpha and beta cells in the pancreas and explain how their antagonistic hormones (insulin and glucagon) regulate carbohydrate metabolism.
- Distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
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