Last Modified: 2011-05-24
a relatively enduring change in behavior, one that results from experience
(instrumental conditioning) occurs when we learn that a behavior leads to a particular outcome
refers to the actions of a system or organism, usually in relation to its environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment
Unconditional response (UR)
A response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex
A stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning
A process in which a previous extinguished response emerges following presentatoin of the conditioned stimulus
Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus porduce the conditioned response
A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus
psychologist most closely associated with istrumental conditioning or operant conditioning, selected the term operant to express the idea that animals operate on their environments to produce effects
developed a general theory of learning, called the law of effect, which states that any behavior leading to a "satisfying state of affairs" will more likely occur again, while any behavior leading to an "annoying state of affairs" will less likely occur again
involves reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior
events or objects that serve as reinforcers but do not satisfy biological needs
The increase in the probability of a behavior's being repeated follwoing the administration of a stimulus
The increase in the probability of a behavior's being repeated through the removal of a stimulus
A schedule in which reinforcement is based on the number of times the behavior occurs
A schedule in which reinforcement is available after a specific unit of time
A schedule in which reinforcement is consistently provided upon each occurrence
A schedule in which reinforcement is applied at different rates or at different times
An early cognitive theorist who argued that reinforcement has more impact on performance than on learning; deemed the terms cognitive maps and latent learningLearning can happen without reinforcement, but reinforcement can increase performance
Referred to brain regions that support intracranial self-simulation (ICSS) as pleasure centers
A storage of material proposed by Semon, which was later popularized by Lashley
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