Lecture 8 2/12 Information Processing An introduction A brief review: Associationism focuses on observable behaviors (S ( R) Constructivism Acknowledges internal motivations Information Processing But how do we do it?? How to think about I.P. theory The mind as a computer Brain = hardware Mind = Software (word or PowerPoint) How we input, store, organize, retrieve, and output info. Series of simple commands make a complex system *this is the basis for much Artificial Intelligence research The I.P. Framework How people operate on information Detection Transformation of the stimulus in the real world Storage ? how we store it Accessing it again *How is info changed as it moves through the system? What is information? Types of knowledge Declarative [Knowing what] Procedural [knowing how] Conceptual [knowing why] Episodic/Autobiographical [knowing when to apply this knowledge] General model of I.P: ( Input ( Processing ( Output ^ Overt: observable Covert: can?t see it [memories, thoughts] Assumptions of I.P. Theory Focus on mechanism of change Focus on thinking Thinking is I.P. thus, is continuously active Change produced by continued self modification Quality of thinking at any age depends on: What info we represent How we operate on info How much info we can keep active at a time** Atkinson-Shiffrin (Store) Model 3 basic stores Sensory register Working memory Permanent memory Affected by limited: Time Capacity **look in notebook for more What develops over time? 1. Capacity - with age we hold more info in memory 2. Strategy use - with age we use more effective strategies 3. Speed of Retrieval - with age we can search for and respond based on information faster
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