Introduction to Motor Development Required Reading: Chapter 1 Payne & Isaacs (2007) The Study of Human Movement Disciplines: ?P.E. ? Kinesiology ? Movement Science ? Exercise Science Sub-disciplines: ? Exercise Physiology ? Biomechanics ? Motor Behavior ? Sport Psychology Motor Behavior ? Definition ? the investigation of principles of human movement ? Movement is the central focus of the study Motor Control ? Definition ? the study of the neurophysiological factors that affect human movement ? Question ? How do we make movements? Motor Learning ? Definition ? the study of processes involved in acquiring and perfecting motor skills ? Question ? For optimal learning, how should we practice? Motor Development Definition - 2. The study of the changes in human motor behavior over the lifespan, the processes that underlie these changes, and the factors that affect them 1. The study of the changes in motor behavior which reflect the interaction of the maturation and environment NATURE VS. NURTURE ? Helping perfect or improve movement performance challenge without discouraging ? To create a developmentally appropriate physical education curriculum Importance of Studying Motor Development ? Understanding normal development enables us to diagnose and provide proper intervention for developing disabled late reflexes = neurological damage? ? What professionals would benefit from this information? General Motor Development Terms ? Qualitative ? technique changes ? Sequential ? orderly appearance of certain motor patterns, i.e., reach before grasp, stand before run ? Cumulative ? new behaviors are built on previous ones ? Directional ? progressive or regressive, ultimate goal ? Cephalocaudal ? maturation proceeds head to ?tail? ? Proximodistal ? maturation proceeds from points closest to the body?s center to the periphery ? Multifactorial ? motor, intellectual, social, emotional ? Individual ? individual differences Lifespan Approach ? Study the individual through both progressive and regressive phases of development Development Growth Maturation qualitative, functionalquantitative, structural Gross or Fine Movement? Gross or Fine Movement? Gross or Fine Movement? Gross or Fine Movement? Product Approach ? Task-oriented ? End result or outcome is the focus ? Performance scores ? Quantitative ? Think of examples of this approach being used by a parent/teacher/coach/athlete. Process Approach ? Emphasizes the movement itself, little or no concern with the outcome ? Form and function ? Qualitative ? Think of examples of this approach being used by a parent/teacher/coach/athlete. Stages of Motor Development ? Phases, periods, transitions across the lifespan ? Qualitativley different ? Not present prior, not the same form after ? Hierarchical ? Ordering invariant ? Common universally ? What is the controversy with respect to stages? Continuous or Discontinuous? History of Motor Development ? 1787 ? 1928 Precursor ? interested in the mind ? 1928 ? 1946 Maturational ? biological, - norm-referenced scales ? 1946 ? 1970 Normative/Descriptive ? Physical Education ? 1970 ? present Process-oriented ? Information processing ? Dynamical systems Interdisciplinary Approach ? Examines the acquisition of movement skill as a child ages ? Examines underlying neurophysiological factors as they change with aging ? Examines differences in joint angles with gait across ages Research overlaps across sub-disciplines Motor Learning Motor Control Biomechanics Research Designs ? Cross-sectional ? Technique used to imply development by studying groups of varying ages at one time ? Longitudinal ? Technique in which the same individual is observed performing the same task over a long period of time to determine developmental change ? Sequential (Cohort) ? Technique combining longitudinal and cross-sectional observations ? Some subjects are observed over the full length of the study whereas others are monitored part of the time or just once Take Home Question: What are the Pros & Cons of each Research Design? Cross-sectional Longitudinal Sequential-Cohort swinges Introduction to Motor Development
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