Abbasid Empire Was in Baghdad Max Weber would have looked for center of energy, intellectualism, and commerce ( he would have looked at Baghdad Systematized production ( transformative New form of productive economy Why Baghdad ( economic , scientific, and education hub during this time City of Baghdad built in 762CE Made capital Harun al-Rashid comes to rule after Baghdad was built as the caliph ?golden age? ( everything flourished in this time Arabic?lots of lit and translation to Arabic Was a patron?wealthy and gave gifts to people that impressed him Wife also famous for charity Making things better for people Wife realized that from Baghdad to Mecca, it should be a nice trip ( roads lined with treets Empire spread from Africa to India (great success for military) Into Indus River; into Morocco Culture flourished Charlemagne The Holy Roman Empire Barbarian territory in Europe Destruction of Baghdad in 1258 after the Mongols came (reconstruction) Abbasids Romans kinship important( effort to get rid of this wanted best people running empire meritocracy Reduced Immigration Commercial use of different religions working together (interfaith society) Lots of philosophical texts(only retained info because of Abbasids Spanish Umayyad Empire (8th-15th century) Second caliph was an Umayyad (Umar) 6th caliph establishes Umayyad dynasty in Damascus (which collapsed) Member fled to Spain; Umayyad dynasty resurges in Spain) Muslim rulers establishing creativity & tolerance Basques had been in there forever Emergence of states/min-states in Spain North mobilized (Southern France did not want to fall under control) ( Europeans trying to drive the Muslims out of Spain ( Christian reconquests into South *Tolerance still exists; art in Grenada (like architecture) Moorish architecture fused Muslim & European styles Culture Muslim conquest of urban centers: Process of taking over and ruling Interaction in Spain( Cordoba Interaction in Constantinople Stress on multiplicity Koran less specific about scientific announcement Statements about science in bible (people risked being heretics) 7 days for creation(not translated in literal way State Policies Islamic role on State How do you run a Muslim state? Until 945 CE Caliph?s arena in religious and secular Caliphs were head of secular and military, until Hasan & Husayn (literal descendant of prophet) Model used @ dawn of Baghdad Appointments of State Officials 1. Amirs (commanders) 2. Anuls (tax collectors no tax collection in Koran but it takes $ to run a state when troops not fighting, collect taxes annuls rose in prominence to amirs ( have to get money corruption a hazard, but there needs to be a system of taxation At certain point, sub tax collectors would not give $ to centers How can they get $ back to center? After 945 CE Baghdad Conquest Baghdad becomes a provincial town Caliph seen as ritual figure head Power shifts to Umayyad caliph in Damascus Power here and Mecca/Medina are only religious sites Variety of compromises with local authorities Egyptian coptics in script (didn?t matter that they were Christian) Governor Purchase and kinship ( subdivisions of empire with governors (each governor is a potential threat) Spy( reports back to center Could and did get out of hand Serious problem because spy gets very important info Investigative Judge and Chief of Police Had to be free, older, Muslim, male Could gain evidence from torture Concerned written & unwritten law Market Inspector Monitors offenses but does not ?snoop? Uses money that is not true money Disagreements about money Marketplaces to keep the law going Public wellbeing and order Made sure people observed religious rules (islamic laws) **Room for favoritism and bribes Judges or Jurisprudence (Qadi) Shariah court Uses one of several ways of Muslim law?elaborate successions of interpretations Some sunni, some Shiite; lots of intepretations Of honorable and incorruptible character Only dealt with Muslims (only religious laws) Could not have a third party raising court case( has to be a plaintiff Trials not held in mosque Proof requires evidence from two women for one man Give testimony even if not physically present Certain people were not acceptable witnesses Penalities Homicide or mutilation Don?t kill another Muslim (clear statement in Quran) ( can claim that someone else is not a true believer One who suffers inflicts counter suffering ( entitled to inflict equal suffering, but good to be nice Determines homicide intent (intent vs accidental) (motive of the person) Avenging inflected on actual offender( don?t punish clan, punish individual Adultry 4 eye witnesses of adulterous act( penalties so severe that they have to be absolutely sure of the crime Theft Same for everyone Hands cut off Rules and the Ruled Rulers guided by strengthening Islam Muslim must always obey to ruler (except in reference to a sin) Rulers bound by same ethical and moral rules Shi?ite issues because ruler supposed to have high spiritual qualities
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