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Definition - the study of the heart, blood vessels, and the blood.
Function: to carry blood.
responsible for providing the force that pumps blood to the body
conducts blood away from the heart, (not necessarily oxygenated blood)
branches of the arteries that enter major tissues
branches of an arterioles located within the tissues whose walls are 1 cell layer thick and through which is the exchange of nutrients, gasses and wastes between the tissues and the blood (this exchange only happens here).
is the result of the combination of many capillaries that are carrying blood through the tissues back to the heart.
carry blood back to the heart (not necessarily oxygenated or deoxygenated blood)
Closed Circulatory System
under normal conditions all the blood is located within a tube, never leaves,
a circulating fluid always contained within a duct (tube) that carries O2 and nutrients to the tissues and CO2 and wastes.
normal human 5.8 - 6.2 liters of blood (12 pints).
25% of total blood volume is in brain
25% of total blood volume is in heart & great blood vessels
25% of total blood volume is in the liver
25% of total blood volume is everywhere else
10 Functions of Blood (1 -5)
1. carries nutrients, glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides to the cells
2. transports O2 to the tissues
3. transports CO2 away form tissues
4. Carries metabolic wastes away from the tissues
5. helps maintain the water balance
Functions of Blood (6 & 7)
6. transports hormones and other secretions of the endocrine glands to parts of the
7. helps maintain the ACID / BASE balance of the body
Functions of the blood (8-10)
8. Aids in the regulation of body temperature. its hard to change the temp of
water, which is the major component of blood
9. Aids in the protection of body from infectious microbes
10. Spread dangerous substances through the body; like snake venom
tapping into the venous system to withdraw blood; withdraws 10ml of blood from arm through a needle.
spin it rapidly (2000 rotations per min for 4-5 min) or sit overnight in fridge without agitating it.
at top, floating white sticky substance, this is the lipids and triglycerides in your blood plasma
is the fluid in which the blood cells are usually suspended; amber color
Red button at bottom
within are the, Blood Clotting Factors
Blood Clotting Factors
13 very important chemicals, fluid left is called “serum” -
is a family of drugs that prevents or delays the clotting of blood by interfering with one or more of the 13 blood clotting chemicals;
translated as clot buster; drug that breaks a clot that has already formed. If administered within 3 hours, will destroy a blood clot.
1. Streptorkinase -
2. Tissue plasminogen activator - TPA
1. Heparin - naturally produced, released by basophils after 30 min, called blood thinner,
2. Dicumoral - Coumadin, Warfarin,
3. Delteparin - Fragmin,
4. Danaparoid - Orgaran,
5. Tinzaparin - Innohep,
6. Enoxaparin - Lovenox,
Composition of the Blood Plasma:
7% soluble proteins
2% other solutes,
a universal solvent, has ability to ionize most all electrolytic chemicals; itʼs a liquid; small molecular weight 18 amu, therefore has the ability to permeate very easily; high heat capacity, meaning it takes a lot of heat to raise itʼs temp.
cheep protein composed of 2-3 amino acids.
a. contributes to blood pressure
b. gives plasma its bulk, or viscosity
c. Act as carriers of important enzymes and hormones through the body. d. under starvation acts as a source of nutrients
very long big proteins shaped like a ball, form a family of important proteins
Hemoglobin, Antibodies & Cytochromes
a specific circulating protein in the plasma " " found in itʼs inactive form, which when activated forms a chemical fibrin. Fibrin IS the blood clot.
Signal Molecules - G-proteins
emit by all cells into environment that carry information if it is safe or unsafe to reproduce.
unless they get into the blood plasma their half lives in the interstitial fluid is very short;
is the fluid surrounding all cells (saline fluid); in that fluid is a protein called Ubiquitin
Ubiquitin is made by what type of cells and attaches to?
made by nearly all cells, except white blood cells is a small polypeptide that attaches to everything except the cell membranes of cells;
wiggle out of the cytoplasm into the interstitial fluid they encounter a molecule that has ubiquitin attached to it, they destroy the combination;
the blood plasma, so if the G-protein gets into the blood plasma its safe from being destroyed. Ubiquitin is confided to the interstitial fluid so it can only tag molecules in the interstitial fluid.
Cells release signal molecules, G-Proteins that carry the “safe or unsafe” to reproduce; G-protein us
attached to by ubiquitin then it becomes a target for Proteases which destroys the combo
minerals (positively charged ions)
non-protein activators (turn on an enzyme within the cytoplasm of a cell)
promoters (extra cellular signal molecule that stimulates cellular mitosis).
are the Blood Cells; they are called this because they are formed in various parts of the body, NOT reproduced.
Formed Elements Formed in the Bone Marrow (in order from most productive to least) (5)
e. long bones
Formed Elements Formed in the Lymphoid Tissues
Lymphoid i.e. tonsils, appendix, spleen
those tubes whose internal layers
has stem cell activity that produce blood cells i.e.. liver, pancreas, spleen
Blood plasma 55% of blood volume
Blood Cells 45% of blood volume because theyʼre bigger
Wright stain and Gram stain history
composed of 3 chemicals: Methylene Blue (Basic Dye) Eosin (acid red dye), Ethyl alcohol (solute for the 2 dyes) Basic Dye - Basophils
Basic Dye Basophils
Eosin (Red) Dye Eosinophils
Neutrophils cytoplasm does not accept either dye, therefore neutral
the WBCʼs that originate mainly in the bone marrow
what are Granular polymorphonuclear Leukocytes and list them
“with spots” accepts wrights stain; nuclei has multiple shapes
what are Agranular monomorphonuclear Leukocytes and list them
”no spots,” does not accept the stain; have only one shape of the nucleus.
[Histiocytes - specialized macrophages]
what are Blood cells
are those cells located in the blood plasma.
stay permanently in the tubes of the circulatory system unless injury (RBC'S)
Every other cell does leave the circulatory system and exerts an influence in the
tissues. The function of the blood is to carry blood cells to the tissues
process of white blood cells leaving the blood stream to goto a tissue.
Red blood cell - aka Erythrocyte functions
a. carry O2 to the tissues
b. carry CO2 from tissues to the lungs
4 major components of RBCʼs.
2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid - aka DPG
what is Hemoglobin
iron containing protein molecule the caries O2 to and CO2 away from tissues; iron is red that is why RBCʼs are red.
what is Carbonic anhydrase
an enzyme located exclusively in the RBC, it converts CO2 & water into Carbonic Acid
what is 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid - aka DPG
is O2 & CO2 attachment / detachment modulator to & from hemoglobin; a modulator specifically controls the speed that this attachment / detachment occurs.
has the ability to cross the membrane of the RBC, the lifetime of a RBC is 90-100 days; the amount of glucose stored in a RBC is a good indication of the average concentration over 100 days of glucose the the blood plasma.
RBC has a clear middle and dark red edge, its the most numerous cell in the body
most common white blood cell in the body.
identified by shape like a 3-leaf clover or link chain; if it has 3 or more lobes then its a neutrophil
phagocytic - cell eating
Increase in # of basophils & reduction of neutrophils indicates
attack and destroy Viruses
naked basophil looks like an “S” (not likely to see in slide) instead looks like a
completely blue dot, with NO exposer of cytoplasm
Heparin an anticoagulant prevents internal blood
Histamine dilates the blood capillaries 3-5 times allowing
more blood to flow
Bradykinin- chem precurser to hemoglobin
chemical precursor to hemoglobin; bradykinin is a
promotor (inducer) it attaches to nerve endings and causes pain; bradykinin is a pain
(pain killing without effecting the CNS) i.e. aspirin, tylenol, Advil etc they
block pain by preventing the attachment of bradykinin to nerve endings.
grab and hold the red dye called Eosin; Phils = attached to;
Eosin is an acid dye so also called acidophils;
looks like a pair of glasses
molds scar tissue to almost same dimensions as original
retracts blood clots, before the scar tissue forms
attack and destroy any blood clots that form without reason.
suppressed by the administration of corticosteroid - a hormone released by the cortex
of the adrenal gland that sits over the kidney i.e. testosterone and estrogen.
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