Texas was considerably diverse by turn of 21st century blacks and Mexicans were about 25% of non anglo populations Immigration from Europe was also occurring 3 times as many blacks as there were in 1860, coming from south came because there was available farming land Whites thought that blacks would no longer want to work farms but 80% of blacks lived on farms most formed cotton in east tx About ¼ owned their own land, others were tenants, sharecroppers. Sharecroppers pay a portion of their crop, tenant farmer paid in cash When they owned own land it was insecure and avg value was 1/5 the value of white farmers land holdings Urban blacks were about 25% of non farm work force. About 80% of that population were laborers and domestic workers Fewer than 5% entered the professions Fewer than 5% were skilled craftsmen-teaching or ministry Teachers and ministers were important for development of black community Tx had largest # of black physicians in tnation in 1900 Wages were about $2 a day for most blacks Whites and blacks were paid same, but blacks had fewer paying jobs. There were few businesses owned by blacks, were small tended to serve the black community Insurance and banks owned and run bly blacks were important for economic development Educational facilities were unequal black access to political power was declining, at end of reconstruction blacks removed from power, and deomocrats took over Black mortality rate was high due to inadequate diet, and medical facilities Some black leaders did emerge, illiteracy whas reduced, some had enough capitol to own land or businesses NAACP 1st chapter in tx was formed in Houston in 1912 At the turn of century most Hispanics lived in south texas. Comprised of Mexican and Spanish heritage, as well as recent immigrants San Antonio was urban center with largest Hispanic population after 1910 other cities like Houston become attractive due to job opportunities Mexicans had some jim crowe separation In some towns Hispanic could only live in certain areas, had low paying jobs, language a barrier. Bilingual schools were created in Mexican communities Schools become a place where american values were taught and bilingual classes were ended, not just w/Hispanics newspapers. Poverty was a persistant problem. Mutual aid societies helped communities-provided financial assistance, raised funds to meet needs of communities, some evolved into political and civil rights organizations, LULAC founded in corpus Christi in 1929 Had limited influence in state politics, large influence in local communities. Only 3 mexican Americans were elected to state legislature. Voting in communities was controlled by political conservative bosses Mexican leaders worked with white leaders to try and gain power There was a large german community in tx, grew cotton, retain german heritage. Czechs, Pols, Sweeds, jews Small Japanese population Taro Kishi In 1900 tx was overwhelmingly rural, but there was a growing urban population 2 factors 1st development of modern transportation systems good could come to one central location 2nd-industrial development, contributed to urban growh, particularly after oil was discovered in spindletop in 1901
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