1/14/2009 Jean Mare Itard, Paris 1790, attempts to train Victor, ?Wild boy of Averyron.? Considered first effort in special education. Victor was about 12 yrs old, captured in the forest of Averyon, unable to speak. Responded to food and drink by smell and behaved like a wild animal. Itard thought boy suffered cultural deprivation and used sensory stimulation to teach a few minor skills and reduced wild behavior. Victor died at about 40. Edward Sequin, 1842 1st school in Paris for care and education with mental retardation. Sequin, student of Itard, migrated to U.S., 1848. Began programs in U.S. Found of AAMR Sequin was an optimist, believed in training and education. Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe was a major influence in the bringing about of state involvement Saw relationship between sensory loss and retardation Perkins school for the blind, Laura Bridgeman both blind and deaf, 1st blind and deaf person to learn language Mid 1860s mood of optimism Charles Darwin?s origin of species 1857 view of biological increased, led to negative view of educating disabled Almshouses- 1830s established for destitute and poor became catchalls for persons with disabilities and retardation Dorthea Dix 1843 influential in closing Almshouses, people often turned into slaves State Hospitals and Reform Schools Rural/Isolated areas, out of sight out of mind. 1960s and 1970s not economically viable. 1/16/2009 Education and schooling, until after the Civil War was a luxury for the middle and upper class American Public Schools The period from the last quarter of the 19th century (post Civil War) to the beginning of World War 1 (1914) was when the public schools assumed their present form. Public schools became an integral part of the new, mass-industrial order in American society. Impetus for Universal Schools Industrial Revolution post 1870 Moving from rural to urban society Demography in flux Arrival of Immigrant Masses post 1870 Law order issue Fabric of American society threatened How to assimilate the masses and prevent anarchy? In Missouri, school attendance was made compulsory from ages 8 to 14 only in cities with population over 500,00 School used to assimilate the masses Children of Foreign Born Parents- 1909 NEW York City- 71.5% Chicago- 67.3% Boston- 63.5% Most of these were non-English speaking. They were assigned to ?steamer classes? if available. ?Steamer classes? were intended to teach English. Otherwise, children were assigned to ?backward classes (meaning they were making progress).? Compulsory School Attendance Laws 1852-1918 Between 1852 (MAS.) AND 1918 (Mass.) all states passed compulsory education laws. Compulsory education laws Resulted in schools forced to deal with children. Resulted in schools becoming major societal institutions. Resulted in the building of schools to meet need. Resulted in the development of college programs specific to teacher preparation normal schools. Resulted in moving towards a fully literate society. Resulted in the seminal beginning of special education classes. Early Special Education Steps-Late 1800s Evening classes open to all ?Upgraded? classes for mischievous and disruptive students, New Haven Conn., 1871. ?Parental? schools meant to fill the gap for parents. Programs for disruptive, incorrigible, defiant and truant (socially maladjusted). 1896, first public school class for the mental retarded in Providence, R.I. ?Streamer? classes for newly arrived immigrants Anti-Immigrant Bias Clearly, the increasing stringency with which compulsory attendance laws were reinforced and reflected an effort to restore stability to a culture inundated with foreign speaking immigrants Assimilation was considered the key; the anti-immigrant bias was couched in intellectual social, Darwinist language ?The great problem of the age is how to get rid of our unsocial classes. Obviously the only way to get rid of them is to socialize them and this may be by education and this should be to contend its main object.: 1899 National Herbart Society Pre1950 Parenting Kids with Disabilities There was few social, medical, mental health or educational programs of assistance. Parents were on their own with three options: Institutionalization Keep the child at home Private school placement Parents were left isolated and insular to cope alone Parenting Issues to Address What does it mean to parent a child with a disability? How do others view me, my child with a disability, and the family? What?s wrong with me? How does it effect parent perception and expectations of the child? How is guilt dealt handled? Uncertainty about cause creates parental speculation about blame What is the impact on the family unit including siblings? It is more costly to raise children with disabilities. Is there enough time to go around for parenting? Do siblings get extra responsibilities for child care? Life cycle and the maturing family. Where to go for assistance? 1/21/09 Council for Exceptional Children Elizabeth Farrell, a NYC teacher, founded CEC to promote the development of special education as a profession in 1928. CEC is the largest professional organization for special educators in the U.S. See page 27 Parent Support and Advocacy Groups Active support and advocacy groups began forming in the early 1940s. For example, NY. Cerebral Palsy Assoc., 1940, National Association for Retarded Children, 1950, National Society for Autistic Children, 1965 In some cases, parent groups took it upon themselves to educate children. Nearly all states had laws excluding children with special needs from school Parent groups became active political lobbyists 3 Functions of Parent Organizations Provide support for sharing of life problems, needs, and frustrations. Providing information regarding services and potential resources. Providing the structure to work in the unity towards obtaining needed services for their children. Special Education Teacher Training First teacher training program in special education was set up in 1914 by Charles Scott Berry at a residential school in Michigan. Shortly thereafter, the first full-time college program was organized at what is now Eastern Michigan University in Ypsilanti. Special education preparation did not come into vogue until the late 1960s and 1970s. Results of Parent Advocacy Funding Litigation Legislation Continuum of special education services Development of Special Education The single most significant influence on the development of special education services was the advocacy efforts of organized parent groups. Active advocacy groups began forming in the 1940s. Benefits of Federal Funding Begun in the 1950s Stipends, fellowships, and scholarships for special education preparation Support preparation of allied professionals in nutrition, dentistry, physical therapy, psychology, etc. Basic and applied research Federal Funding Demonstration projects such as early infant intervention and work with babies having Down?s Life expectancy for persons with Down?s was 9 years m 1929 and 50 plus years in 1990 Persons with mental retardation are capable of learning to do complex cognitive tasks. Research has brought us to the brink of knowing the cause of genetically related disorders associated with mental retardation. Gene replacement therapy is on the horizon. Clinical facilities for diagnosis and intervention of low incidence disabilities. What are low incidence disabilities? Rare disabilities School Classification and the Courts- Litigation Constitutional standards and issues underlying important and landmark cases. 1. One basis for suit is educational and psychological harm attributable to exclusion and misplacement in special education. 1/23/09 School Classification and the Courts- Litigation 2. Minority and children of color are assigned to special education in numbers far exceeding their proportion of the school population, and thus may be isolated and may be injured. 3. The procedures by which the school classifies a particular child or class of students may be faulty. Specifically, how valid are these testing procedures? Constitutional Arguments Used ?Equal protection?- 14th Amendment- ?No state shall deny to any person??.. Equal protection of the laws.? Certain persons or groups are not to be more protected than others. ?Due process?- 5th Amendment- Guaranteed procedural fairness where property, unreasonable action and liberty are concerned- There must be recourse or right to appeal. Hobson vs. Hansen, 1967- found unconstitutional the D.C. ?tracking? system by which children were placed in special education for mental retardation on the basis of IQ scores alone. Relying on Brown vs. Bd. Of Education, 1954, the court held that assessment measures were culturally biased and sustained an unjustifiable separation of students, de facto, on the basis of race and socioeconomic background. This case is critical because it addressed the consequences of being wrongly labeled. Larry P. vs. Wilson Riles, 1972- class action suit on behalf of African Americans students who were placed in classes for the mentally retarded based on IQ scores. The tests were viewed as culturally biased by the California courts, and required that in the future IA test scores serve only as a piece of evidence in labeling children. Subsequently, measures of social competence were designed to more adequately gauge children?s ability to conform to social and developmental norms. Pa. Association for Retarded Children vs. Commonwealth of Pa. 1971 ? Class action suit by 13 plaintiffs who were denied access to Pa. schools because they were mentally retarded. Court ruled that equal protection of the law was being denied, as well as, due process. Court required that all children with mental retardation receive a free and appropriate public education. This case established a precedent guaranteeing access to public education for all students with mental retardation. Mills vs. Bd. Of Ed., D.C. 1972- Plaintiffs secured the right to a free and appropriate public education for all children with disabilities, not just those with mental retardation. The defendant argued a lack of resources to provide for all children with all types of disabilities. The court replied that if there is a scarcity of resources, the burden must be shared by all children, not just those with disabilities. Thus, the guarantees of the PARC case were extended to all children with all types of disabilities. PL 94-142, 1975- Ford, Administration Became IDEA (Individuals with disability education act), 1990 ?Cardinal Principles? Zero Reject, Free and Appropriate Public Education- good fir of education for each child, Nondiscriminatory Evaluation- fair evaluation process, Individualized Education Pan (IEP), Least Restrictive Alternative- Inclusion, Due Process, Parental Participation, Confidentiality Individual Education Plan- IEP A. Present level of educational performance. ? Academic strengths and deficits B. Measurable long term goals and short term objectives. ?Academic, social, & behavioral goals C. Assessment plan to measure progress. D. Mainstreaming opportunities. E. Ancillary Services; school psychologist, speech and language therapy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, etc. F. Progress Reporting G. Transitioning plan for adolescents Americans with Disability Act 1990 1. Nondiscriminatory employment practices. 2. Addressed rights of persons not previously addressed, HIV. 3. Public accommodations addressed, e.g., restaurants, museums, transportation, telecommunications. 4. Supreme Court case, 2001, upheld Casey Martin?s need for a golf cart due to congenital medical condition which limits walking. Area Education Agencies AEAs All states have similar units to be responsible for the delivery and oversight of special education Purpose is the sharing of scarce resources across broad geographical areas. Roles of AEAS- Hiring of ancillary or supportive education professionals, i.e. school psychologists, speech and language therapists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, audiologists, school social workers AEAs do not hire special education teachers. Local school districts hire special education teachers and are responsible for direct delivery of services to children and families under the over sight of AEAs Degree of Restrictiveness Least Restrictive- Typical or normal educational settings, usually a regular classroom in a regular school. Full inclusion is a benchmark for least restrictive. Most restrictive- Setting which is segregated and in which a person may be separated from family, community, and peers. Levels of Restrictiveness Regular classroom Resource room0 about 2 hours per day in a pullout room. Special Class with Integration- about half of the time in a pullout program Self-Contained Special Class with Little Integration- About 80 percent of time in a pullout program Self- Contained Class- Very little integration Most Restrictive Settings Schools segregated by disability. Hospital schools Residential schools Juvenile detention centers Prisons Categorical vs. Non categorical Categorical- Students are grouped by disability in a classroom. Non categorical or Generic- Students are grouped without regard to type of disability. Multi categorical- Students representing more than one category are grouped together. About the same as generic. Why is Special Education Costly? Smaller class numbers. Ancillary support, e.g., speech therapy, school psychologist, etc. Transportation. Staffing time to write IEP Student reviews and evaluation Education assistants and paraprofessionals. Supportive technology for severe deficits. Regular Education Initiative Authored by Madeline C. Will. 1986 Emphasis or Focused on: 1. Eliminate dual stream of education 2. Eliminate or minimize classification and labeling. 3. Eliminate pullout approach 4. Emphasis is on solving student problems in regular classroom. 5. Inclusive classroom service delivery. 6. All students are in the purview of all teachers. Characteristics of Full Inclusion All children with disabilities attend neighborhood schools. All children with disabilities are in general or regular education classrooms for the entire day. Regular or general education teachers have primary responsibility for all students with disabilities. Measuring Individual Differences Assessment, testing, and measurement results are used to effect decisions about individual students, including, diagnosis, labeling, instructional methodology and curriculum changes. The beliers that we attach to testing may or may not be fully correct. Often testing results are given a great deal of power in how we respond to individual students. Common Testing Approaches Standardized or norm referenced tests. Criterion referenced tests. Curriculum based assessment and curriculum based measurement. Standardized Tests (Benchmarks) Tests designed to measure performance in comparison to a norm or standard How was the rest normed? What group was used? Reliability- The degree to which the same test result can be obtained consistently from the same test, is the test a reliable tool? Validity- Does a test really measure what it is intended to measure? To what extent does that test ?really? measure what it is supposed to measure? What are the biases and weaknesses in the test? First Intelligence Test Alfred Binet and Theophile Simon developed the first intelligence test, the Simon-Binet, in about 1905. Mental age is expected to increase with chronological age. Tintelligence- mental age over chronological age times 100= IQ. All IQ tests have a mean of 100. Standardized/Norm Referenced Tests 1. Based on the assumption that all persons taking the test have standardized life experiences. 2. Method of evaluating a person that has ben applied to a large group so that an individual?s score can be compared to the norm or mean. 3. Test results are often used to predict future outcomes. 4. Serves as a way to rank order the test takers. 5. Results rarely translate into instructional implications.
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