October 19, 2009 Adolescent Development What are two basic quesetions of Behavior and Genetics? ?How much? and ?How? ( Based on the scientific findings, what?s the best answer to the question ?what makes someone gay?? It?s most likely due to many factors, just like for straight people ( The results of the study of boys with and without the gene that predisposes them to aggression illustrates that Environments can influence gene expression ( What makes someone gay? Nature? (?How much?) Behavior Genetics: Twin Studies Concordance rates for identifying as gay higher in identical v fraternal twins Prenatal hormone levels Heredity or environment Brain differences Cause or effect? Representative sample? Environment? Social Learning Reinforcement and punishment negative heterosexual experiences positive/rewarding same-sex experiences No support Children of gay parents ? no more likely to be gay Most gay people have straight parents Is there a typical pathway to becoming gay? Typical environment? ?How?? Extensive interviews Looked for common threads Ex. Poor relationship with parents Ex. Positive same-sex experience that triggered self-identification as gay Found no consistent environmental factors Different ?kinds? of gay? ?ethnic gloss? Probably a combination of genes, physiology and social environment No evidence it is a ?choice? Many ?fight? against it for many years No more likely to say they chose to be gay than straight people report choosing their sexuality Development of Gay Identity Stage Theory (R. Troiden, 1989) Modeled after ethnic identity development theories Sexual minority; stigma, rejection Must integrate sense of self as a gay person into overall sense of identity Based mainly on memories of gay adults Model of Gay Identity Development 1. Sensitization: before puberty Homosexuality not seen as personally relevant Heterosexuality is presumed Feelings of marginality Felt different from same-sex peers 2. Identity Confusion: adolescence Begin to think feelings/thoughts may be homosexual Feelings of inner turmoil Shame, guilt, denial, confusion Resolving this confusion difficult Role experimentation 3. Identity Assumption/Commitment: late adolescence or after Incorporate gay identity into overall personal identity ?Come out? to other gay people first Does not fit everyone EXAM 2 Textbook review: Chapters 4-6 Ignore all ?Emerging Adulthood? info Self Understanding Dimensions Developmental change Self Concept v Self-Esteem Harter?s dimensions and self esteem Parents role in self esteem Erikson and Marcia Contemporary views and criticism of Parents and Identity Ethnic Identity Change over generations Changes w/ age Relationship to other positive outcomes Emotionality Change w/ age causes Personality Big 5 Stable? Temperament New research/new classification Gender ? what is it? Puberty?s influence Evolutionary theories Social influences Social role v social cognitive theories School experiences Cognitive development & gender understanding theories Research Differences b/w males and females? How different? Boys and Masculinity Negative Side? Girls and Femininity Gilligan critics Sexuality research Question of validity Don?t memorize ?timetables? Do know major ?concerns? in trends Risk factors for early intercourse/problems Contraceptive use Changes w/ age Cross cultural differences Pregnancy cross cultural differences Consequences for teen and her baby Abortion Availability for teens in US Consequences for teen Pregnancy Prevention ? what has worked? HIV/Aids Teens v Adults Prevention program that works STIs recognize Rape and college women Sexual Harassment Sex Ed in schools Changes in US Cross cultural differences
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