Political Participation I. Participation- Basics A. Define- Actions of private citizens to influence Gov B. Categories 1. Unconventional -Relatively uncommon, threatens/defies GOV, strike, boycott, violence 2. Conventional -Routine, voting, letters C. USA participation level 1. More likely than other democracies to participate 2. Less likely to vote II. Unconventional in US A. Most Americans not approve B. Historic example 1. Boston Tea Party 2. Vietnam war- protests, Johnson not run again 3. Civil Rights- Direct action C. Characteristics of unconventional 1. Distrust of political system 2. Strong sense of political efficiency 3. High group of consciousness III. Conventional Participation A. Categories 1. Supportive- express allegiance 2. Influencing- Broad change of policies B. Particularistic change 1. What does it entail? -Something specifically beneficial, ask Gov keep something bad from happening 2. Level- Local Gov 3. Higher socio-economic standing likely C. Broader policy 1. Entails- influencing personnel and policies 2. Two kinds a. Low (easy) initiative voting b. High (more active) initiative, like class actions IV. Voting- institutional rules A. Purpose of elections 1. Citizens chose candidate to server their interest 2. Public officials are accountable 3. Socialize political stability 4. Institutionalize access to political power 5. Bolster Gov legitimacy B. Basic rules for collective decision 1. Who can vote 2. How much each person?s vote counts 3. How many needed to win C. Expansion of US suffrage 1. Originally left to states (Male, White, property) by 1800 no property 2. African Americans a. 15th amendment formally gives the franchise b. But? poll taxes and literacy tests c. Voting act of ?65, decision preventing voting tests 3. Women a. Suffragette movement, 12 states from 1869-1918 b. 19th amendment ratified in 1920 4. 18 YO?s -26th Amendment in 1971 D. Compared to other countries -Still long, quicker than others V. Civic engagement, participation, quality democracy A. ?ideal? level of participation B. Participation engagement, social capital 1. Participation relations with Gov institutions 2. Civic relations with people and community 3. Capital, relations to one another C. Social capital- basics 1. Capital- any asset, resource, advantage 2. Social- features of life, social network, people acting together 3. Increasing- joining a group, even non-political 4. Importance? Trust lubricates social life IV. What killed social capital? A. Possibles 1. People more mobile, and suburbanization 2. Money/Time pressures 3. Change of women?s role 4. Change in marriage/ family structure 5. Rise of the welfare state B. Putnam- TV did it C. Critiques of Putnam 1. TV too simple 2. Traditional forms of social capital declined, people need new ways to interact
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