Lecture 2: Writing Competency Jan 28, 2010 The ?The Writing Process? What?s Your Writing Process? Everyone?s is Different Does it Work for You? Or Do You Need to Make Some Changes? Two Approaches One View of the ?Writing Process? Invent Compose Revise Step 1: Invent / Create Ask Critical Questions Free write / Brainstorm Map / Cluster Step 2: Compose Do the Research Narrow the Topic Develop the Thesis Organize the Ideas Write the First Draft Step 3: Revise Review Refocus Reorder Add Cut Proofread (Grammar / Usage) Style What is ?Style?? Readability Clarity Persuasiveness The Components of Style Thesis Statements Paragraphs Transitions Clarity & Conciseness Tone / Word Choice A Thesis Statement? Answers the question that you have been asked to address for your assignment Argument, Explanation, Analysis, etc. Different from the SUBJECT/TOPIC of the assignment Lets the reader know what to expect from the paper Should contain ONLY the major point(s) that will be addressed Is usually a single sentence somewhere in the first few paragraphs. Thesis Statements: The Good, the Bad, & The Ugly (1) Often dismissed because it is animated, The Simpsons treats the issues of ethnicity, family dynamics, and social class effectively. (2) Often dismissed because it is animated, The Simpsons addresses parent-adolescent communication patterns more accurately than many other television shows. (3) Often dismissed because it is animated, The Simpsons addresses issues of family dynamics more powerfully than many other television shows. (4) Often dismissed because it is animated, The Simpsons represents the greatest show in the history of television. Which Thesis Statement is the Strongest? (2) Often dismissed because it is animated, The Simpsons addresses parent-adolescent communication patterns more accurately than many other television shows. Why? Paragraphs The Four Elements of a Good Paragraph Transition Thesis Statement /Topic Sentence Explanatory / Supporting Evidence A brief wrap-up sentence The Structure of a Paragraph: Put these six sentences in order: (1) Researchers are beginning to look at the effects of friendships on adolescents? development. (2) We especially know very little about the role that friends might play in the development of adolescents? self-concepts. (3) Peers become a major influence in a person?s life during adolescence (Berndt, 1999). (4) Friends, especially, become a major influence on development during this era of life (Urberg, Degirmencioglu, & Pilgrim, 1997). (5) We know that self-concepts become more complex and multifaceted with age (Harter, 1998), but little is known about possible influences on this development. (6) Currently, we know very little about how an individual benefits or suffers developmentally as a consequence of his or her friendships (Hartup, 1996). Transitions Between Paragraphs Show how the paragraphs are connected Specific to THOSE paragraphs Between Sentences Show how ideas in sentences are connected Transition ?Devices? General Transition Words & Phrases Repeating / Linking to Previous Information Different Types To Add: Further, Moreover, etc. To Compare: Whereas (NOT ?while?) To Show Exception: Despite, Yet To Show Time: Immediately To Show Sequence: First, Second, etc. Clarity & Conciseness What is Clarity? Making Sure That Your Meaning Comes Through What is Conciseness? Using the Strongest Words (Not Necessarily the FEWEST, but usually) Clarity: Strategies Go from old to new information Be careful with subordinate clauses Use active voice & active verbs Avoid noun strings Avoid multiple negatives Use clear pronoun references Tone / Word Choice Consider Your Audience When to use jargon (and how much) For Most Academic Writing Aim for ?Objective? Formal ? but not ?Forced? Avoid using ?you? or ?I? Writing vs. Having a Conversation ?you know? ?it?s like? ?well,? Punctuation Commas No comma between a subject and a verb (unless with a clause, then use two commas) To separate INDEPENDENT clauses After introductory clauses Semi-Colons Only use to separate two sentences that you want to keep together Can be used to emphasize a relationship To Make Your Writing Concise Replace several vague words with more powerful and specific words Eliminate words that explain the obvious or give excessive detail Omit repetitive wording Omit redundant pairs & categories In Particular, Avoid: Overusing expletives at the beginning of sentences ?There is,? ?there are,? ?it is,? etc. Overusing noun forms of verbs The function of this department is to administer financial aid This department administers financial aid Unnecessary infinitive phrases The duty of the employee is to answer customers? questions. The employee answers customers? questions. Circumlocutions In light of the fact that? It is important that? Grammar / Usage What is Grammar/ Usage? Mechanics of Language ?Understandability? The word- & sentence-level mechanics of language Sentence Structure Subject-Verb Agreement Punctuation Commas Semi-colons Sentence Structure: Sentence Fragments: Clauses are separated from the main idea Add punctuation ?The current state policy on the wages of child-care workers is insufficient. Which is why we believe the proposed amendments should be passed.? Incomplete main ideas Add subjects/ verbs or remove prepositions With the ultimate purpose of creating the policy was higher wages for child-care workers. Mixed constructions Start one way, end another ?For going out without her mother?s permission got Michelle grounded.? Homonyms ? commonly misused and confused words Their, they?re, there Too, to, two Your, you?re Suggested Resources UConn?s Writing Center Both Online & In Person Purdue University?s Online Writing Lab (OWL) LOTS of resources ? presentations, handouts, etc. Also information about APA Style The Writing Center @ The University of North Carolina Handouts & Tutorials The Texas A & M Writing Center Helpful Handouts APA Style Why all the rules? To standardize people?s work To give credit where credit is due For ease of understanding Components of APA Style Title Page Formatting Writing/language Citations References Formatting APA Style Title Page Margins Always use 1? margins Font Styles Use 12-point-font No Bold Underlining is only for URLs Italics can be used for emphasis Headings Writing/language Use of personal pronouns ?I? ?We? ?We the researchers of this study? Not ?we the people? Subjects vs. Participants Citations and References? Citation: using a source and naming it. Reference: The bibliographic information at the end of the paper so readers can find the source. Why cite? Give credit to outside sources. You are being graded on YOUR work. LACK OF CITING = PLAGIARISM Is it Plagiarism Yet? Obvious plagiarism Buying/stealing/borrowing a paper Copying a paper from a web source Hiring someone to write your paper for you Copying large sections of text with citing Less obvious Sketchy paraphrasing Not using quotation marks when needed Not citing when using someone else?s ideas, even in your own words. When to cite: Avoiding Plagiarism Always cite when you? Quote directly from a source Reproduce someone else?s ideas in your own words Use or summarize someone else?s research findings Use facts or data that are not common knowledge Reproduce something in a slightly altered form, but keep the main idea Paraphrasing Paraphrasing IS Taking someone?s ideas and putting them in your own words Shortening a passage by keeping the main idea Paraphrasing IS NOT Changing a few words Changing the order of ideas When citing isn?t necessary Don?t cite when: Writing about your own life and experiences Reporting results of your own research When you write something that is common knowledge What is common knowledge? General rule: If you find it in 5 plus credible sources Facts (JFK was elected president in 1960) When in doubt, CITE! In-text citations Two different types Parenthetical citation Name citation Parenthetical citation This is an example of a parenthetical citation (Bellizzi, 2008). Refers to only the ideas/information contained in the sentence where the parenthetical citation appears at the end. Types of citations (Author, date) (Author & Author, date) (Author, Author, Author, date) First, then (Author et al., date) (Author et al., date) for six or more authors only For direct quotes Just add a page number to the citation (Bellizzi, 2008, p16) In-text citation: Name Parenthetical citation In addition, implementing family involvement activities is related to fewer student disciplinary referrals and suspensions (Sheldon & Epstein, 2002). Name citation In addition, Sheldon and Epstein (2002) found that implementing family involvement activities is related to fewer student disciplinary referrals and suspensions. Name citation For paraphrasing Use authors? names with date in parentheses immediately after According to Bellizzi (2008)? For direct quotes Add the page number after the quoted passage According to Bellizzi (2008), ?Learning APA style is really fun? (p.1.) Refers to all information in the same paragraph or until you cite something else References Why use them? To give complete information about where to find a source you used Documentation, documentation, documentation What should be included? Authors names (with initials) Date of publication Title of work Journal title, volume, page numbers Book title, editors, edition, page numbers, publication information
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