? Chapter 2: The History of Evolutionary Thought ? What is anthropology? ? Four subfields of anthropology 1. 3. 2. 4. ? The six steps to humanness 1. 4. 2. 5. 3. 6. ? Scientific Method 1. Steps: 2. What is a hypothesis? 3. What is a theory? ? The Pre-Scientific View ? The Middle Ages ? Views strongly influenced by religious doctrine ? Three major ideas: 1.. 2. 3. 1 ? The Scientific Revolution (1500 ? 1700s) ? New discoveries lead to three key realizations: 1. 2. 3. ? Groundwork for Evolutionary Theory ? An Interdisciplinary Approach ? Geology ? Paleontology ? Taxonomy ? Demography ? Evolutionary Biology 2 ? Geology ? James Hutton (1726 ? 1797) ? Scottish scientist ? Uniformitarianism ? Charles Lyell (1797 ? 1875) ? Scottish geologist ? Rediscovered Hutton?s work and furthered the research on uniformitarianism ? Major influence on Charles Darwin ?Principles of Geology (1830 ? 1833) ? ?Deep Time? ? Paleontology ? Robert Hooke (1635 ? 1703) ? English scientist ? Studied the microscopic structure of fossil wood ? Georges Cuvier (1769 ? 1832) ? French naturalist and zoologist ? Pioneer in paleontology and comparative anatomy ? Fossils found in geologic strata were remains of animals that had gone extinct ? Catastrophism 3 ? Taxonomy and Systematics ? John Ray (1627 ? 1705) ? English naturalist ? Carl von Linné (1707 ? 1778) ? Carolus Linnaeus (Latinized name) ? Swedish naturalist ? Binomial nomenclature ? Systema Naturae (1735) ? Taxonomy and Systematics Today ? Demography ? Thomas Malthus (1766 ? 1834) ? English political economist ? An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) 4 ? Evolutionary Biology ? Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (1744 ? 1829) ? French naturalist ? Plants and animals change in form over time for the purposes of self-improvement ? Inheritance of acquired characteristics ? Lamarckism ? Charles Darwin (1809 ? 1882) ? Hired as the naturalist for a five-year (1831-1836) voyage around the world on the HMS Beagle ? The Galápagos Islands ? Darwin?s Finches ? Darwin?s contribution to evolutionary theory ? Synthesis of ideas with personal observations 1. 5 2. ? Darwin Borrows from Malthus ? Five observations: 1. For most organisms, every pair of parents produces multiple offspring. 2. For most organisms, the population size remains the same. No increase occurs over time. 3. Population is limited by the food supply. 4. Members of populations compete for access to food. 5. No two members of a species are alike in their physical attributes, i.e. variation exists. ? Theory: Evolution by Means of Natural Selection ? Natural Selection ? Primary mechanism of evolution ? Natural Selection ultimately must explain adaptation ? Adaptations ? Selection only operates on existing variation ? Not a creative force 6 ? Four necessary conditions for natural selection to operate: 1. 2. 3. 4. ? Charles Darwin ? On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection ? Published in ? Key concepts: ? Alfred Russel Wallace (1823 ? 1913) ? English naturalist ?1858: ? Darwin rushed to publish the Origin and generally receives the majority of credit for the discovery of natural selection 7 ? Darwin-Wallace vs. Lamarck ? Natural Selection ? Mechanisms of Inheritance ? One weakness of Darwin?s theory of Natural Selection ? How do traits that are being selected for (or against) pass from parent to offspring? ? Origin first edition (1859) ? Origin later editions ? The next step in Evolutionary Theory ? Mendelian Genetics 8 jwsadvari Microsoft Word - Lecture 2 Guided Notes.doc
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