ability of an organism to resist infection or ward off disease. results from actions of cells that circulate through blood and lymph
body's bult in ability to recognize and destroy pathogens or their products. (barrier and internal defense.)
acquired ability to recognize and destroy a pathogen and its product. activated by exposure of the immune system to a pathogen. (humoral and cellular immune responses)
intact skin, mucous membranes and secretions, nml microbiota
first line of defense consists of thesei
first line of defense, low pH (3-5). epidermis (consists of tightly packed cells with KERATIN, a protective protein. produces fungistatic (inhibit fungi) fatty acid.
traps microbes. once trapped there, CILIARY ESCALATOR transports up and away from lungs
lacriminal apparatus, saliva, urine, vaginal secretions, lysozyme, GI system juices, peristalsis (defecation/vomiting). these are?
secretory mechanism that washes eye
secretory mechanism that washes microbes off food
secretory mechanism that flows out of body
secretory mechanism that that flow out, low pH (3-5)
secretory mechanism that in perspiration, tears, saliva, and urine
secretory mechanism that with low pH (1.2 - 3) of gastric juices and is controlled via peristalsis (defecation and vomiting)
permanently colonize host org and protect is by occupying niches of potential pathogens, producing acids. symbiotic relationship normally. some nml microbiota are opportunistic. also may be transient microbiota
microbiota that may be present for a longer time in the system
seperate circulatory system that drains lymph fluid from extravascular tissues. on the capillary level, leukocytes (WBC's) and solutes pass from blood into lymphatic system. consist of bone marrow, thymus, thoracic duct, lymph nodes, spleen and MALT
producton of stem cells
production and maturation of T Cells here
collects most of the lymph in the body and drains into the system (blood) circulation at the left subclavian (or brachiocephalic) vein
left subclavian vein
most of the lymph in the body is drained into the system circulatory system (blood) here.
high leukocyte concentration, site of B and T cell activation, trapping and digesting foreign particles in lymphatic system.
Spleen and MALT
functionally similar to lymph nodes. One filters blood instead of lymph, the other contains most of the body's lymphocytes
trapping, engulfing and destroying pathogens on surface by phagocytes (including macrophages, monocytes (precursor of microphage), neutrophils) that move by amoeboid action (PSEUDOPODS- temp 'feet like' projects, crawling) contain high concentration of lysosomes
recognize pathogens using pattern recognition molecules (PRM) such as Toll-Like Receptors (TLR's) which interact with pathogen association molecular patterns (PAMPs)
natural killer cells
detect abnormal cells and release chemicals leading to cell death, inhibiting spread of virally infected or cancerous cells, recruited by INTERFERONS
pain and swelling, brought about by molecules released upon injury of infection
type of connective tissue, release histamine which triggers blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable.
activated macrophages and neutrophils
release cytokiens, signaling molecules that enhance immune response
systemic inflammatory reponse triggered by pyrogens, released from macrophages and by toxins from pathogens causing abnormally high body temp. hypothalamus: normally set at 37 deg C. gram-neg endotoxin causes phagocytes to release INTERLEUKIN-1 (IL-1). hypothal releases prostaglandins for reseting to a high temp. body temp increases meta rate, which raises temp and causes vasodilation and sweating
the complement system
includes serum proteins activated in cascade. complements action of WBC's. developes holes in membranes in foreign cells, acts as marker, recruits other WBC's. three pathways: classical, alternative, and lectin
pathway of complement activation that is initiated by antigen-antibody complexes
pathway of complement activation that is initiated by interaction of lipid-carbohydrate complexes with certain complement components (C3 and factors B, D, and P).
pathway of complement activation that is initiated by interaction of carbohydrates containing mannose and lectin
biochemicals produced and released by virus infected cells. stimulate production of anti-viral proteins in neighboring cells (protection). recruit natural killer cells, which destroy damaged or foreign cells or cells infected with virus. nonspecific defense against viruses.
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