Automobiles and Natural Resources Objectives How automobiles pollute? Gas types Variety of automobiles available Emission Reducing Equipment “Green Driving” before you start, starting, driving How do automobiles pollute? Emissions of a car engine are: Nitrogen ____(N2) - Air is 78% N2 Carbon dioxide (CO2) product of ________ carbon in the fuel _____with O2 Water vapor (H2O) – product of_________ hydrogen in the fuel bonds with the oxygen in the air. Because the combustion process is never perfect ____________ emissions are also produced in engines The good news Measures to Promote Fuel Effienciency Gas Types Variety of automobiles available Gasoline Hybrid Electric Solar LEED certified vehicles (http://www.greenercars.org/news.htm) Hybrid Electric Vehicle ~________ total driving range 40-mile all-electric range ______ fuel consumption ______tailpipe emissions Electric Vehicle (EV) Gov. Granholm said that “the _________ rty is over” and her state's future is battery-powered Available as ___________________ (NEVs) and as scooters and bicycles. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/32239-future-car-hydrogen-cars-video.htm Combines 2H2 + O2 2H2O + _____________ Questions about where to sustainably get the H2? ____________________ are the simplest source Solar Vehicles What technology do they use? Emission Reducing Equipment ___________ converters. eliminate more than _____ of carbon monoxide, ____ and nitrogen oxides ______________ . saves fuel at highway speeds Emission Reducing Equipment Fuel__________ . efficiently regulate fuel to the engine __________ transmissions. Additional gear (5th in manual and 4th in automatic) decrease the number of engine ______________speeds saves_____ less wear and tear Less______ Emission Reducing Equipment _____ tires less rolling________ smoother rides Less distortion More grip ________ gas mileage “Green Driving”: Before you start Plan and ____________ your trips. Avoid__________ Less idling, fewer________ Also: share, carpool and __________________ Keep your car Not tuned = more___________ Well tuned= improves ______________ Do not overfill your gas tank Spilled and “top off” contributes _____________ - air pollution “Green Driving”: Before you start 4. Tires Reduces Conserves 5. Repair _____________leaks CFCs 6. Engine __________in cold climates ______ and the catalytic converter achieve maximum________ “Green Driving”: Starting Don’t pump the_________, if your car has fuel injection. - should ______________even in cold weather _____ Subaru Justy was the last car sold in the United States to have a ________ (fuel to engine). NOW:_____________. “Green Driving”: Starting 2. Don’t warm up by_______ excess emissions may damage the_______________. “Green Driving”: Driving Accelerate____; avoid “pedal to the metal.” engine wastes _______ unburned gas escapes from the exhaust pipe Avoid excess > _______uses more fuel than re-starting engine Obey increases gasoline consumption may increase exhaust emissions “Green Driving”: Driving Maintain a ____________ speed. Using ______________on the highway is good except in ________(pedal activity) 5. Remove excess engine ____________and consume more fuel EPA Green Car Guide http://www.epa.gov/greenvehicles/Index.do;jsessionid=e4a8f8e7daf210fc879a7cd2f4745eb59ee560555543d47b543427799818d074.e34MbhqOa3uSby0Lch4NbN4Tc3uNe6fznA5Pp7ftolbGmkTy Check out the vehicle you drive most often!