Lecture 3 VI. Organizational Culture & climate A. Organizational culture 1. As in interaction takes place through the networks of an organization, verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns develop & become routine 2. These become part of the organizations culture 3. Organizational culture ? the sum of an organizations symbols, Events, traditions 4. Symbols are in important cultural element of many organizations. E.g. trademarks, buildings, uniforms, use of space, events, and the language used daily 5. functions of organizational cultures a. provide a sense of individual & collective identity b. contribute to establishment of structure and control c. aid with introduction of members to customs and traditions of organization d. foster cohesiveness among organizational members 6. Becoming a member of an organization involves assimilation, socialization, & initiation into the culture 7. Stability within organizations is fostered when members carry cultural traditions with them forward in time 8. Cultural continuity & innovation are equally necessary to the survival and prosperity of organizations over time B. Organizational Climate 1. An organization?s climate is the atmosphere or tone organizational members experience as they go about their daily routine 2. Studies show that when supportive climates exist, job satisfaction is high, and productivity may improve as well Culture & Communication I. Culture & communication A. Culture 1. Culture ? the complex combination of common symbols, knowledge, folklore, customs, language, information-processing patterns, rituals, habits, & other behavioral patterns that link & give a common identity to a particular group of people at a particular point in time 2. Culture ? a socially constructed, historically transmitted system of symbols, beliefs, values, & their meanings B. relationship between culture and communication 1. Communication is the means though which individuals create, share & perpetuate culture 2. Culture influences how we communicate and communication influences culture 3. Symbols, beliefs & values of a culture inform norms for how to communicate 4. As beliefs & values change, communication norms / practices change a. e.g marital names in U.S. CULTURE ====== Norms ======COMM. Behavior II. Cultural characteristics A. High & Low context cultures 1. High context ? most of the information is already in the person a. e.g. US American media references b. Western Apache ?speaking with names? c. Japanese, Arab, & Mediterranean cultures 2. Low context ? most of the information is in the coded , explicit, transmitted part of the message a. e. g. North Americans, Germans, Swiss, Scandinavian b. video clip ?low and high context cultures? B. Individualistic & collectivistic Cultures 1. Individualistic cultures ? focus on individuals & their desires a. Individual?s goals of prime importance b. Competition encouraged c. Each person responsible for their actions d. success defined in terms of individual accomplishment e. e.g United States 2. Collectivistic Cultures ? focus on group and responsibility toward group a. Group?s goals of primary importance b. Individuals responsible to & for entire group c. expected to adhere to group values & rules d, e.g Japan e. Video clip ?culturally speaking; individualism-collectivism? C. Monochronic and Polychronic time 1. Monochronic ? people who pay attention to and do one thing at a time a. time is thought of a commodity ? something to be counted , manages, allocated & spent b. time is divided into segments to be scheduled c. Schedule and completing tasks in a timely manner is important d. ?time is money? e. compartmentalization of personal / work life f. e.g. united states, Switzerland, Germany, Scandinavia 2. Polychronic ? people who attend to and do many things at once a. more fluid approach b. may be late c. may attend to personal / social matters before business or at some time d. e.g. Puerto Rico, Mediterranean cultures III. Cultures and Change A. Cultural Change 1. Cultures change over time 2. Cultures are dynamic, multi-layered, complex systems that are always in motion and at play 3. Cultural change may be slow, but it does happen a. e.g. titles for invitations/cards b. e.g. gay marriage in U.S.-clip IV. Intercultural Comm. A. Definition 1. Intercultural Communication- whenever we interact with someone from another culture 2. Cultural characteristics such as individualism/collectivism, high context/low context and monochromic/polychronic time can create difficulties in intercultural interactions 3. The Joy Luck Club clip- coming to dinner
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