3/9/10 1:06 PM Guest Lecturer: Professor Klune I. Demographics Population 2001: 444,891, 778 79% African 9.6% white 8.9% coloured 2.5% Indian 1950's: the state identified people by race Languages 11 official languages Isi Zulu is largest spoken language (23%) Isi Xhosa (17%) Two general pools Sutu and Guni Most usually have 2 languages Afrikaans (13) White and brown Afrikaans divided during apartheid English (82%) Colonial heritage- settlers arriving from 1820?s onward. language of government and business Racial groups are socially created 1906 Prisons European category includes French creoles (South Asia), African Americans, or anyone from colonial society. Wasn?t about race, but background. African American missionaries- couldn?t be grouped in with black Africans Pre-apartheid period state constructed groups by social divisions slaves, non-slaves indigenous, non-indigenous II. Background 1652- Dutch East India company at Cape Town station for ships going East Not a settlement Needed labor, got slaves British take over Cape Town by 1806 Abolish slavery 1836. Dutch settlers revolt Against British rule Against abolishment of slavery They were slaveholders movement inland Settlers move inland 1879: British destroy power of Zulu kingdom But biggest defeat the British had seen at the hands of the Zulu army 1906- Largest armed rebellion; Zulu Chief refuses to pay tax Discovery of diamonds and goldgold rush. Need labor Introduce head tax to get African communities into cash economy head tax must be paid in cash Enormous amount of conflict Africans didn?t have proper technology. Sent men into the mines to get cash to buy guns to defend their land. Rebellion crushed. Anglo-Boer War/South African War emergence of 2 states came from initial movement of settlers: Boer republics Got a lot of sympathy against British imperialism By end of 19th century: 4 British colonies 1910: Deal to unite these four coloniesUnion of South Africa national convention brings together white communities, but do not allow black Africans to participate African National Congress- first nationalist organization in African Comes together to oppose being left out of government. III. Division in new government Split in Government Participation Voting criteria in the Cape same as in Britain (1910) male, property owner Boer republics had strict rules restricting black involvement 1910 negotiations decided the Cape vote would not be extended to??? Bifurcated state: elected democracy + African majority with no participation Characterizes African polities as futile Chief turned into local despot corrupt existing system Colonial governor in council is at the top Authoritarian 1913: Land Act Introduced racial division 87% of land only available for settlement of whites Remaining land for blacks Creates reserves for indigenous people IV. Passive Resistance Ghandi starts to organize resistance against discrimination against Indian community rights to own land Indian Congresses formed to resist discriminating laws (passive resistance) 1950?s Passive Resistance Campaign incorporates multiple groups Congress Alliances Want a different future for South Africa After WWII Smuts ?Nazis? create apartheid in South Africa V. Apartheid (Segregation) 1952: Official Registration Act divided population by race Broke up families multiracial families cannot live in the same place divided family into 3 racial groups Education Built in inequality 1970?s: white kid:600,000 spent per year on their education South Asian/Indian: 120,000 coloured: 70,000 black: 40,000 Explicit statement about putting people in their places Employment Apartheid and Decolonization are simultaneous frame different ?homelands? as potential independent states System of economic exploitation migrant labor system from rural areas to mines regimented system recruited in. Africans must carry internal passport Mines: people lived in military compounds 9 month contracts and then returned to homeland Fed, clothed, worked only small surplus for family This system starts before apartheid Resistance to Dupas Scandal of 1950?s 1960: ANC passive resistance to Dupas Pan-African Congress leads March burn passports police open fire- kill 69 people country in chaos State of Emergency--> declares Pan-African Congress illegal Country goes into state of resistance December 16, 1961: Operation of Resistance shock government into sabatoge and attack government buildings 1964 crack ? Mandela arrested African National Congress stays in exile & rebuilds underground structures 1976: Black students angry about education teach half in Afrikaans and half in English June 16, 1976 March in Sueto: Students marching against this policy. Police open fire on the students. Over 800 killed in Sueto alone, thousands others Thousands of young people fleeing the country Liberation movement provides army for them to join training and educational opportunities This generation leads struggle to end of apartheid Nationalize struggle Open legal orgs Industrialization By mid-1970?s there is black industrial working class firing costs keep from 1979- government acknowledges black labor unions Pressure undermining apartheid Public resistance Military resistance Economic Labor mobilization Early 80?s- increase resistance to resistance 1985: mobilization illegal VI. Changing world cut off of external investments 1986- US cuts of investment in apartheid regime 87-88: Gorbachev 1988: ANC constitutional guidelines multi-party democracy with rights New perspective Had to accept new alternatives South Africa (Guest Lecture) 3/9/10 1:06 PM 3/9/10 1:06 PM
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