4/9/09 9:21 AM Key Terms: Totalitarianism USSR Stalin Trotski Bukharit ?Socialism in one country? ?The Great Turn? -1929 Collectivization -> 1929- 1933 Kulak Holodomor Five-Year Plan Unfulfilled expectation, apprehension, persistence of old elites, resentment in older men and women because of pre-war life and re-feminize them by pre-war standard Eastern Europe ?dissatisfaction due to territorial and political expectations that the leaders of the new states had developed Poland, Hungary, Yugoslavia no state received territory they thought that they were entitled to Greeks lost their lands -> lands were being preserved Great Greece is a necessity to form inability to escape the fractures that the Great War caused in countries Dissatisfaction filters into other parts of life Einstein and his theory of discreteness, atomic mass, Newtonian physics is simple, time, light and other ethereal things that he discovers Theory of relativity Scientists decide to disaggregate an atom Electrons don?t orbit atom appears to be much more complex energy orbitals more than just positive charges in the nucleus, there are neutrons birth of quantum mechanics atoms are held together by forces bizarre -> idea that movement, space and laws that govern our universe has nothing to do with that of atoms Heisenberg The Uncertainty Principle The way that they figured out that light had mass and what was going on was that they passed light through groups of atoms in isolation and use light to measure the displacement of atoms Heisenberg says you can never find this out for sure because light has mass the minute the light hits an atom, it is displaced, so you never know where it really is Whatever goal you went into the war with it was not achieved Uncertainty seeps into the arts Salvador Dali -> surrealism Playing with things that people expect as normal and changing them into something that is absurd Example: The Persistence of Memory Plays -> James Joyce Recreating the art of novels Ulysses bans conventional story telling, especially with Finnigan?s Wake other forms of challenging literature RUR -> Robot is created by Karl Chopic -> robot is the Czech word for work War with the Newts dystopian fiction We -> novel about a person in a future society that is highly technologized known by number, not by name Brave New World Music -> 12th tone scale Freud great encapsulation of this period born with instincts to bond with things in environment-> food, sexual desire, etc. raw energy that is changed by ego (sense of who you are) and tries to direct the Id (primal inclinations, the will) and identify different goals and objects can?t have ego where ego and id are in alignment superego is formed -> conscious, society?s expectations before the war, looked at how these parts of the psyche influenced the individual (id, ego, superego) lives through WWI in Vienna, experiences food shortages, famine, etc 1920 -> watches the growth of power-seeking governments Collapse of the Hapsburg Empire inspires a series of questions as to what to do with the new Austria what should it become, look like, consist of, etc. Freud watches this develop puts in mind the hostility of mass politics ? especially with Karl Lueger at this point, Freud pulls his lens back, and starts to believe that societies are like individuals looking at European society, the surge in violence, the hatred against the bourgeoisie, the hatred of the Croats, Serbs, etc he makes another huge step to typify the era believed in talk-therapy enough talking could lead to curing psychosomatic symptoms reason and consciousness could be a curative process after the war, Freud loses faith in reason believes now that this doesn?t work starting to think about modernity as a state of continued unhappiness Civilization and the Discontents Explains the principle Every society also has a new death instinct New concept Example of how a thinker can change from being optimistic about change and reason to being pessimistic with a feeling of uncertainty 1929 -> first global economic crisis black Friday on wall street end of roaring 20?s -> period of prosperity in America drags down European economies that had never properly recovered from the Great War The Great Depression Vicious circles on one hand -> American money going to Germany to help stabilize reparation payments, but the money is going to Britain and France, but then the money goes back to the United States gold standard -> The New Mercantilism -> way to establish wealth is to establish balance of trade but also having tariff barriers the rise of protectionist barriers in the European states-> constricts international trade, when prices start to drop for major commodities prices for exports start to sink 1920?s -> shift in capitalization strategies items of mass production -> automobiles, fabrics, home appliances, etc. Black Friday -> October 1929 -> sucks capital in from all around the world fears that the stock market was over valued crisis on confidence banks and share holders need loans to pay off capital contraction of credit and the gold supply takes in 40% of the world?s gold reserves by the United States 1932-> American investment abroad amounts to 1/3 of what it has been in 1929 1930 -1931 frantic runs on banks -> people trying to get their money out of banks disappearance of credit increase in unemployment 1933 -> industrial investment abroad declined by a total of 2/3 GEP went down 20-30% a year 13 million people unemployed in United States Germany -> unemployment is 6 million France -> unemployment reaches 3 million half agrarian -> farmers do not lose their jobs developments in countries has an impact on international trade US sharply cuts it?s imports from 1929-1933 value of international trade shrinks greatly Challenge liberal economics crisis depends everywhere except the USSR and Nazi Germany memory of war and economic crisis also, a memory of seeing states intervene in economics and the success that was brought by this explains the emergence of authoritarian and totalitarian regimes totalitarianism regimes -> Nazi Germany Italy -> a bite more laid back USSR Big debate because a lot of professors think that the USSR was trying to thank God, while the Nazi?s were about bad things What they share how do these regimes become normal and possible? there are certain similarities both USSR and Nazis were put together by people who were ruled by controlling regimes sense that Russia is lagging in the development ?Russia is less advanced and other countries are more advanced less so, but still present in Germany also a sense that you can tell where industrialization is going they see this is a process state policy, loans, and officials can be used to replicate this historical experience and that state power can make this happen sense of historicism and of catching up and of backwardness all these things get accelerated by WWI state supervised total war in Russia and Germany sense that after the war of how extensive this total control can be state?s necessarily as a director as a mobilizer of the people all these states have drawn their bureaucracies and higher officials from a certain class upper class/ nobility sense of propriety or decorum government isn?t efficient as we think difficult to get large organizations to do things 4 years of grinding war, economic collapse, dedication to revolution, sense of defeat this leads to old bonds being snapped Russia -> experienced a Civil War Outsiders comes in-> 2 enabling moments for them to come into power Hitler is Austrian -> it?s very clear to the German people Stalin is a Georgian -> clear to the USSR Avid consumers of what the state says it can do Believe that the state can do anything it says it can and anything it wants to do Time of social collapse have more compelling ideas of catching up and know development is coming each of them experienced organized and disorganized collapse, and neither was socialized into the limits or taboos of the old regime governments First totalitarian state to emerge : USSR appears in the 1920s not necessarily to be headed towards this totalitarianism Lenin decides to help with the economy reemergence of private sector allow peasants to farm their village land as they liked Lenin suffers a series of stroked in 1921 and is forced into inactivity starts to notice that you have to be in communist party to be a higher official worker ? even better at the same time, this country is huge and it is hard to govern to do this you need rules, regulations and policies inevitably, the governments starts to democratize secretariat elected to keep everything straight Lenin notices that it?s going to be tough to find a logical successor Writes a testament Trotsky most visible character associated with this government aside from Lenin only person who supported revolution in 1917 Lenin doesn?t trust him he also doesn't have many friends within the party itself Red Army is thinking of the French Revolution-> worried that Trotsky will be a Napoleon He's Jewish Nicolai Bukharin Bright, great guy, not sure he understands the basic elements of the Marxist theory Talks about other people but then turns to Stalin Stalin is a son of a domestic shoemaker 1908,1909 comes to Lenin?s attention was a bag man for gangs of robbers, thieves, etc, who decided they were Bolsheviks and would knock over banks and then give the money to Lenin acted as the first link in a money laundering scheme the other was Lenin knows Stalin, is that he writes a pamphlet in 1909 about Marxism real objective position in society is your class position worker, owner, buyer, seller, etc. a worker is a worker is a worker nationhood is not important, just class there are legitimate and illegitimate nations and the nationalism are a necessary stage in the development of socialism similar theory that developed in Austria Lenin really likes this pamphlet Stalin is a suck up does all the work that people in power would not want to do in control of the secretariat and has a bad temper Stalin has even chewed out Lenin's wife, but Lenin cannot do anything Lenin decides that you cannot trust Stalin -> does not want him to get into authority because he will lose his head Lenin dies in 1924 -> he?s given a huge state funeral grotesquely orchestrated ceremony build a mausoleum -> embalm him, leave the casket open Stalin is in charge of the funeral arrangements and makes it a power play -> first emergence as political player and people do not take sufficiently seriously History 120 Lecture 4/9/09 9:30 AM 4/9/09 9:21 AM
Want to see the other 11 page(s) in lecture 4/9?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!