September 24, 2009 Adolescent Development According to Brooks-Gunn?s research on dancers in the Princeton Ballet: The later - maturing dancers had the highest self - esteem and body image ( Dr. Larson?s comments are Consistent with Brooks-Gunn?s research findings discussed in the last class ( Piaget?s theory could best be described as taking which sides in the Nature-Nurture and Continuity-Discontinuity. Debates? Nature and Discontinuity ( According to Piaget We learn by trying to make sense of our experiences ( Dr. Reed Larson Less to do with hormones and more to do with what?s going on in the child?s life. Ronald Dahl, MD Changes in brain systems happen BEFORE hormones; it?s because of the changes in the brain that causes the hormones to build Behavior is always expressed in context not just because of hormones Cognitive Development J. Piaget (1896 ? 1980) Worked with Binet (intelligence Testing) Pattern of incorrect answers Different patterns at different ages Children think differently at different ages Qualitative change Not Quantitative Systematically observed children Including his own ?Baby biographies? Example of Case Study Piaget?s Theory 4 Stages of Cognitive Development Qualitatively different Not just more knowledge Universal Invariant and Heirarchic What causes development? 1. Biological readiness ? most important 2. Environmental demands 3. Social interactions/teaching Equilibration Assimilation Accommodation We are active learners Piaget?s Theory Schemas: mental structures; organizes experiences with world Born with a few basic schema Example: sucking as a way of understanding something Schemas are refined New schemas are created Active Learners Equilibration: internal process of self regulation; feedback system for adjusting to new info 2 mechanisms of Equilibration Assimilation: incorporating new knowledge into existing schema(s) Cockapoo into schema for Dogs Accommodation: altering existing schema(s) in response to new info ?Mammals? includes duckbilled platypus!?! Equilibration Assimilation and Accommodation are complementary Always happening At times of the most cognitive change Accommodation more prevalent Active Learners Piaget?s Theory Sensori-motor stage (0-2 yrs) Think by experiencing/acting No mental representation Lack Object Permanence Pre-Operational stage (2-6 yrs) Mental representations/ object permanence Thinking is intuitive, NOT logical Centration: can only focus on one feature at a time Highly influenced by what they are perceiving at the moment Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 yrs) Logical reasoning about depends Operations: mental actions that form a coherent and reversible system example: mentally adding two numbers Conservation: properties of an object/set don?t change even when its appearance changes in a superficial manner Can only reason logically about concrete objects with which they have had personal experience Can NOT reason logically about abstract ideas, impossible situations, hypothetical situations Formal Operational Stage (12+) Abstract thought: think logically about things that cannot be directly perceived Future, hypothetical, contrary to fact Hypothetical reasoning: think logically about possibilities Metacognition: ability to think about thinking Idealistic thinking: can imagine ideal characteristics, perfect world, etc. Formal Operational Thought Metacognition: ability to think about thinking Can monitor own thinking Can imagine others? thinking Chess, etc Memory/learning strategies Arguing with parents Friendships Consequences for Personality abd Behavior Reality is just one of an unlimited number of possibilities Unsettling but exciting Enamored with own thinking abilites David Elkind Imaginary Audience: belief that everyone else is as concerned about you as you are Personal Fable: belief that you are different, unique, special; No one like you, no one can understand what you?re going through Invulnerable/immortal
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