African-American author and administrator
*started his own weekly newspaper the Houston Freeman
*soon after became the personal secretary for Booker T. Washington
dominant figure in the African American community in the United States
*Northern critics called Washington's followers the "Tuskegee Machine".
* W. E. B. Du Bois demanded a stronger tone of protest for advancement of civil rights
*cooperation with supportive whites
*Wrote "up from slavery"
*Atempted every solution to the problem of twentieth-century racism
*First African-American to earn a doctorate at Harvard
* founder and editor of the NAACP's journal The Crisis
* opposition of Booker T. Washington's alleged ideas of accommodation with Jim Crow separation between whites and blacks and disfranchisement of blacks in the South,
*reeminent entertainers of the Vaudeville era
*One of the most popular comedians
*Best-selling black recording artist before 1920
* first black American to take a lead role on the Broadway stage
*First major African-American feature filmmaker,
*produced both silent films and "talkies
It consisted of films produced for an all-black audience, featuring black casts.
*approximately five hundred race films were produced, but many lost b.c produced outside of hollywood.
* Astor Pictures released several race films and produced Beware with Louis Jordan.
*vanished after United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc., or the Hollywood Antitrust Case of 1948
*Forced the division of motion picture exhibitors from the motion picture production companies
American-born Afro-French dancer, singer, and actress
*first African American female to star in a major motion picture
*first black actor of the 20th century to portray Shakespeare's Othello in a production with an all-white cast.
* American composer, pianist, and big band leader
*most important composer in jazz
*American jazz singer and bandleader
*energetic scat singing and led one of the United States' most popular African American big bands from the start of the 1930s through the late 1940s
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