LECTURE EIGHT HUMANISM ? reborn; ?pride in humanity; people worthy of study? Branch of CIVIC HUMANISM Critical of religious behaviors in the middle ages Opposed monasticism Must stay in secular world and try to improve it Not anti-religious, but focused on different things Education changed to include more topics In high middle ages, universities began Types of schools Charlemagne ? palace schools Cathedral schools ? universities came from and were for clergy UNIVERSITAS Same status as a guild Would be granted a charter like a town would Professors and students were members of the clergy First one was in 1158: University of Bologna SCHOLASTICISM Way of study To find religious meaning in just about anything Effort to find symbolic meaning in everything Dominated, educational model in the high middle ages 1033-1109 ? ANSELM trying to find a balance between reason and faith from Italy and ended up in England everything should begin with faith and then use logic to explain and understand ABELARD ? 1079-1142 French Compare the bible with the teachings of the church that had been elaborated over the years and tried to recognize how the two were connected Sometimes wasn?t obvious THOMAS AQUAINAS 1225-1274 Italian from southern Italy from University of Naples Argued faith and reason cannot be in conflict If your reason leads you to question your faith, something it wrong with your reason Go rethink it PETRARCH 1304-1374 Humanist from Florence, Italy but lived most adult life in Avignon (papacy was there) Decided the middle ages would be called The Middle Ages Initially said the renaissance period was different than what had come before He was a Critic of the Scholastics Criticized them more for their writing style than their use of reason Language of the intellectuals and writing was still Latin Criticized how they wrote Latin He looked back to ancient Cicero?s writing and said that is what good writing was; he was comparing the two ?Christ is my God, but Cicero is the Prince of language? wasn?t? normal to look back to someone pre-Christian and look to them wrote poetry but not in Latin, but in vernacular Italian language made reading available to more people who had not learned Latin LEONARDO BRUNI 1370-1444 Humanist from Florence, Italy Looked to the ancients also Thought Cicero was the best example you could find Argued that Cicero (pre-Christian) was the best writer and even of person He was a scholar, author and a linguist and also a politician Thought that is what scholars should be; be more than scholars; be involved in improving the secular world At one time the leader of city-state of Florence Was in charge when Florence was at war against city-state Milan Wrote a panegyric to the city of Florence during the war Praising that it was the greatest town there ever was (comparing to Roman Republic) ? still looking back to ancient times Perecles was talking about Athens is how Bruni wrote about Florence **Student of CHRYSOLORUS A Greek scholar who left Byzantine Empire around 1400 and made his way to Florence This is how Bruni got exposed to learning of the ancients Good example of people who left empire around 1400 PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA 1463-1494 Italian from Rome Concerned with abstract things and the potential of humanity Wrote ORATION ON THE DIGNITY OF MAN (p 328) He thought human potential was unlimited This was in Greek contrast to the Middle Ages Would see different view of humanity and very optimistic Written as a preface of NINE HUNDRED Would have all human knowledge in it Optimistic oration Was murdered LORENZO VALLA 1407-1457 Italian humanist who applied his learning to a practical issue; scholar and a linguist Used his knowledge of languages to access a document called the DONATION OF CONSTANTINE Document held by the papacy that had been authorized by Constantine himself Gave bishop of Rome primacy over the Catholic church He looked and said the document could not have been written by Constantine or anyone around that time language used was not used until hundreds of years after he died earliest it would have been written was around 800 or 900 concluded it was a forgery! Secretary to the Pope and he didn?t want to hear about it NICCOLO MACCHIAVELLI 1469-1527 From Florence At one time was a government leader and ambassador Involved during government when it was a republic 1494-1512 was a Republic thought it was a great way to run a country when the Republic fell, he lost his job he changed his mind wrote THE PRINCE states that a monarchy is the only way to run a country forgot about Republic thought it was best because the decisions could be made for the good of the people and not get tangled up in debate with others thought if you don?t have power, you can?t do anything good for your country most important thing was it keep power by any means necessary better to be feared than to be loved if they are afraid of you, they won?t kick you out and you can remain in power and do good things wrote for CESARE BORGIA father was a Pope (Alexander VI) known for orgies rumored to have murdered his brother and incest with his sister scandalous wrote for him trying to get a job development of the printing press JOHANNES GUTENBERG 1400-1468 in Germany Developed in 1450s ? it was movable type Would not have meant anything if things had not come before Moveable type by a goldsmith Paper new in Europe (from China) initially made out of linen rags and replaced VELLUM Made out of sheepskin Expensive Took 300 sheep to make a Bible Became practical Elites preferred handwritten on vellum Always had differences Printed on paper More readable Helped standardize the vernacular language University students liked better By 1500, 20 million books had been printed Became cheaper over time to make books Can?t overestimate the importance of the press because it was a big part of the northern renaissance 2. NORTHERN RENAISSANCE ERASMUS 1466-1536 from Holland ?he laid the egg that Luther hatched? ? people would say clergyman and scholar one of the leading intellectuals wasn?t satisfied with the vulgate translation of the bible translated them himself argued that everyone should be able to read the bible and shouldn?t just be in Latin shouldn?t be just available to the clergy opposed monasticism thought it was wasteful and people should live in society and try to improve it not concerned with theology thought living a moral life was important wrote a number of books, but one was a list of how to live a moral Christian life argued that the church should not wage war there should be no acquisition people should believe what the way whether it was right or wrong and church should not kill them for believing something argued that Catholic church could reform itself reform from within, not split into separate parts nice in contrast to everyone else THOMAS MORE 1478-1535 from England Wrote the book UTOPIA Created the word that meant ?no place? Created fictional society and place Sets up a system where there is socialism and freedom of religion Was the first time an author argued for socialism Didn?t believe in freedom of religion or socialism in practice Chancellor of England Friends with King Henry VIII ? how he got to be Chancellor Henry found out someone translated Bible into English and Henry and More thought that person should be arrested, burned and killed Was a stanch Catholic opposed to Catholic Church and English Church splitting up humanist in his writing
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