CHAPTER 3 NEW KINGDOM Temple of Ramses II Located in Abu, Simbel, Egypt (and interior) Ramses II(pharaoh that ruled for 67 years All 4 sculptures are representations of him They are monumental( 65 feet tall?authority of control through size One was destroyed in an earthquake This is a temple built for Ramses II Osiris( god of the dead and the figure that supposedly granted eternal life to the people On the inside of the temple there are representations of Ramses as deceased( symbolizes connection between Osiris and Ramses II Pylon( a very simple, large gateway that has sloping sides Court( large open area where people gather Hypostyle hall, temple of Amen-Re Hypostyle hall( a hall with a roof that is supported by columns Located in Karnak, Egypt Derived from post-and-lintel system Clerestory( part of a building incorporating windows that rises above the roof of another part of the building Windows allowed light to filter in and illuminate the interior spaces (no electricity) Columns have images and text on them( relief carvings?sunken relief( a type of relief that is made by carving the image into the surface rather than carving away the surrounding area Artist is not distorting the contours Column needs the weight to support the building Capitals AMARNA PERIOD A sub-period of the New Kingdom 1353 B.C.--> starting date Akhenaton began ruling and radically changed the Egyptian religious system( he established a monolithic religion (worship only one deity, Aton( is not male or female and doesn?t take animal form; sun disk) He changed his name to Akhenaton, which literally means servant of Aton He believed that he was the son of Aton Akhenaton A more realistic portrayal of a pharaoh Body is shaped like a female, softer features Freestanding Why so radical?--> theories: 1. Accurate portrayal because he had a medical condition( enlarged pituitary gland 2. Reactionary art( reflection of the changes associated with him 3. A reflection of Aton, who was neither male nor female (the figure is ambiguous) Nefertiti Artist( Thutmose Depiction of one of Nefertiti?s wives Is seen as unfinished Idealized woman( her name meant ?the beautiful one is here? Elongated features (neck) Tiye Family member (mother) of Akhenaton( she helped him with international affairs Realistic( wrinkles on face; color of skin; lips; personality/expression( looks like she?s angry (her mouth, her eyes are set, her eyebrows are arched) Earring(projection of status, wealth (expensive materials) Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters Family portrait( very informal Sunken relief Figures have long necks, belly sticks out Kids look almost identical to parents( artists then didn?t know how to depict kids Sun disk( Aton giving sun rays to family and blessing them POST-AMARNA PERIOD Begins in 1335 B.C.--> when Akhenaton?s reign ended Religious cults were re-established Innermost coffin of Tutankhamen Tut( began ruling Egypt at age 8 and ended at age 18, when he died His tomb was found in the 1920s, with thousands of objects in it that represented wealth Sarcophagus( Latin word meaning ?consumer of flesh? or a coffin King Tut was found in a nest of sarcophagi( but this one actually held his body (most elaborate( made of pure gold?projects his power) Death mask of Tutankhamen Found on wealthy people Last judgment of Hu-Nefer Scroll Book of the Dead Made from papyrus Scene( Hu-Nefer going through a set of tests in order to achieve afterlife Continuous narrative Hu-Nefer(figure on far left 5th figure from left is recording everything Osiris( figure on far right in all white Hieroglyphics Figures at the top are representative of a collective group of gods
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