1946 Continued... ? July: the Philippines gain Independence for US but Huk rebels initiate a rebellion for independence of the southern islands, Communist? Islamic secessionists? ? September: Bulgarians votes for pro-Soviet communist dominated government and rejects Pro-western regime. US and Great Britain claim the election was rigged but do nothing about it ? 1946: the Chinese Civil War resumed between Communist and Nationalist forces ? 1946: insisting that they need the colony to avoid economic disaster at home French forces return to Indochina. The communist led Viet Minh organizes the resistance to the French return ? People saw all these changes and thought it could not be by chance, Moscow must be initiating and manipulating ? People saw these communist uprisings as similar movements in the 1930's where evil leaders were coming to power ? It is easy to see these conflicts as Moscow going in and instigating these conflicts ? Soviets liked to help the local rebels, they send cases of arms, when the CIA finds these weapons they appeal to congress to intervene and the USA pours millions of dollars into a country that might not even be democratic, but as long as we are fighting communism, it is worth it 1947 ? March 12: in a speech before Congress, President Harry Truman outlines the "Truman Doctrine." US has a strategic interest outside of the Western Hemisphere. We will provide support to nations (Turkey and Greece) who are fighting communism both by external threat and by internal subversion ? May 22: Congress approves $400,000,000 of military aid to Greece and Turkey ? June 5: Secretary of State George Marshall announced a bold plan to redevelop the war torn areas of Europe (The Harvard Speech). The European Recovery Program or, more commonly known as the "Marshall Plan." ? August 15: Britain formally ends colonialism in India and Pakistan. India will try to establish "the Third Way" neutrality in the Cold War. Brie civil war results in separate states largely on religious grounds. Truman Doctrine March, 1946 ? The Truman Doctrine declares that the USA has a strategic interests in the fate of nations outside of the Western Hemisphere (Monroe Doctrine) We will provide id to nations who are under threat from both external as well as internal forces. The latter proves to be the most difficult to discern. Do we support anti-communist dictators? The Marshall Plan ? Economic instability and disorder were though to lead to despotism (communism) ? Planning and markets: Capitalism needs a push in the right direction ? European integration is better than a fragmented, inefficient competition ? America is best served with stable capitalist growth worldwide ? The most successful reconstruction plan in history, but it didn't work perfectly in all countries-in Germany it worked great, in Italy it disappeared. ? The idea that Americans can do similar rebuilding in other countries not European ? We tend to forget the Europeans were capitalists and educated, it had a human infrastructure that was already there, we didn't have to reeducate them ? We will not find these comfortable settings in the third world National Security Act of 1947 ? National Security Council (NSC) to coordinate policy, consisting of the president, vice president, secretary of state, and the newly created secreatr of defense and various appointed advisors ? Department of Defense and Secretary of Defense (1949): Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and an independent branch, the U.S. Air Force (other branches could retain their own air corps and intelligence departments), Marines remain part of the Navy The Arms Race ? Despite general demobilization after WWII, the United States would never return to a fully peace time status ? Weapons development continued in a competitive race with the Soviet Union to have a "strike capability" that assured a destructive capability so immense that the opponent would never think of attacking The B-52: Intercontinental Atomic Delivery "Platform" ? Continuing research and development resulted in the B-52 Stratofortress (1954-55), a long range bomber that could deliver multiple atomic weapons. Combing with airborned refueling, the United States achieved air superiority over the Soviet Union for more than a decade ? It was with the development of the intercontinental ballistic missile (post 1960) that the Soviets successfully balanced the "delivery equation."
Want to see the other 2 page(s) in Lecture Notes 2-12?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!