Parsons -Studied medicine but switched to economics -attended Harvard and worked there -influenced by Weber -Theory of Social Action ? combines Macro and Micro sociology ? all actions has four characterisrics ( can be individual or community) 1. Goal 2. motivation 3. a situation 4. normative regulation ? action is subjective 1. EXAMPLE: 1) Jane is an actor motivated to spend energy, time, and money to reach a desirable goal as defined by the cultural system, 2)a B.A. degree. The action takes place in 3) situation, which includes means (facilities, tools, resoucres) and condidtions (obstacles). All these elements are regulated by 4) normative standars of social system. In this case she must meet certain course and grade requirements. Because the norms have been internalized, Jane behaves appropriately ? Actions are part of constellations of actions termed systems 1. four systems 1. behavioral Organism: physical person (determines how) 2. personality system: needs, goals, and motives 3. social system: interaction and status role relationships ? social structure (looking @ posistion rather than individual cases) 4. cultural system: values, beliefs, and symbols which prevade society ? EXAMPLE: honesty, integrity, and responsiblity @ University of Tennessee 2. values come from cultural system 3. corresponding normative standards and role expectations are learned in social system 4. individual identity, which reflects behavioral organism and personality system, from personality structure 5. biological equipment comes from behaviroal organsim ? Institutionalization: cultural values become part of the instituational regulations and patterns 1. also penetrate the personality system through internalization 2. common values are central and shape personality and social systems ? Institutionlization and internalization create solidarity and intergration, legitimacy, and conformity; thus stability and continuance 1. when internalization is complete , guilt becomes the best form of social control ? All systems must meet certain functions to survive 1. Adaptations: every action system must obtain resources from the environment and allocate them 1. have to be able to adapt to situation 2. doing what you have to to survive 2. Goal attainment: the system must define and create the means to acheive its goals. 1. EXAMPLE: University is to educate students and conduct research to expand knowledge 3. Intergration: all parts of the system must be coordinated and intergrated so there is some balance among activities used to reach the goals 1. norms are used to ensure intergration 4. latency: to maintain individual motion 1. EXAMPLE: rewarding posistions which require great effort to maintain 2. Pattern Maintenance: values and norms must support the exsisting system ? figure out a way to keeo things in motion and repetitive
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