Orbitals -Bohr Model: shows that orbits have a fixed radius. When an electron jumps from one orbit to another, it emits energy. -Orbitals come in different shapes and sizes. -Lower energy orbitals are smaller. -Higher energy orbitals are larger and further away from the nucleus. 1s orbital max. is 2e 3p orbital max is 6e 5d orbital max. is 10e 7f orbital max. is 14e Orbital Diagram Rules: ? Aufbau principle- electrons fill orbitals starting with the lowest energy orbitals. ? Pauli Exclusion principle- A max. of 2 electrons can occupy each orbital, and they must have opposite spins. ? Hund's Rule- electrons are distributed into orbitals of identical energy in such a way as to give the max. number of unpaired electrons. -Electrons are always filled in their ground state, or lowest energy state.
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