Anthro Genes chromosomes ? pair of chromosomes makes gene; locus is where gene occupies specific spot on chromosome; alleles are different forms of genes (gene controls trait and allele controls specific trait) DNA ? abbr=deoxyribonucleic acid; in form of double helix (made of phosphate, sugar and base); bases: admine, thymine, cytosine, ganine (A binds to T and C binds to G); DNA makes exact copies of itself; genes appropriate where amino acids go which make up proteins Genetic code ? made of bases of DNA with 64 codons; these are broken down into 3 bases, 3 are terminators (stop the synthesis of amino acids) so there are 20 amino acids with 61 codons = more than one codon is often used on same amino acid Protein Synthesis ? broken down into 2 stages: 1. transcription- gene copied within nucleus by mRNA [RNA has different base-uracil instead of thymine; DNA unravels and RNA copies one side with complimentary bases]; 2. translation-polypeptide chain (amino acid chains) translated from mRNA in cytoplasm, need mRNA/ ribosomes (read mRNA)/ tRNA (deliver) which brings in complimentary codes to mRNA
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