Exam Thurs Feb 18th ? drawing and labeling ? multiple choice, multiple correct answers Thyroid Hormones ? critical in fetal development ? higher turnover rate in T4 (some from placenta) ? Oxygen Consumption or Basic Metabolic Rate (BMR) ? taking T3&T4 will increase BMR ? regulated Na+, K+ and ATPase activity & # itochondria ? Heart ? regulates cardiac output and contractility (pulse) ? Skeletal muscle ? protein catabolism, loss of muscle tissue ? Gastointestial tract ? increases gut motility ? Liver ? increases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis ? Bone ? increased bone turnover leading to loss of bone ? Other edocrine effects ? decrease of hGH Illness and Thyroid Hormones ? Mild ? slower metabolism ? Moderate ? slows down more ? Severe ? slows down significantly Pathway ? Pituitary -> TSH -> Thyroid -> T3 & T4 -> ? TRH neuron (negative feedback) ? Pituitary (negative feedback) ? Energy state and Temperature affect the TRH neuron ? TRH neuron influences TSH secretion by the Pituitary Goiter ? enlarged Thyroid ? can be caused by lack of iodine ? TSH is overproduced but also causes cell growth in the Thyroid ? Adenoma ? overgrowth of a tissue before cancer Excess/Dificiency of Iodine ? Excess - can be a problem but eventually recovers. 'Self-Blocks' Hyperthyroidism ? Tumor growth of Thyroid ? Too much TSH ? Graves' disease (Antibody Induced) ? Chorinonic gonadotripin excess - B subunit ? Pregnancy ? symptoms on slides Hypothyroidism ? Hashimoto's disease - Antiobody induced ? Infections ? Drug induced ? symptoms on slides Hashimoto's Disease ? Autoimmune disease that blocks the TSH receptor on the Thyroid ? Opposite of Graves' disease ? Genetic Susceptability ? Nongenetic: ? Pregnancy ? antibodies from baby can attack carrier's child ? Irradiation ? can destroy parts of the Thyroid gland Adenoma ? Constant activation of TSH-recepor ? Function mutations of TSH receptor (Plummer's disease) ? Treatment: Throidoctomy
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